Ahmad S, Haas S, Hoppensteadt DA, Lietz H, Reid U, Bender N, Messmore HL, Misselwitz F, Bacher P, Gaikwad BS, Jeske WP, Walenga JM, Fareed J. Differential effects of clivarin and heparin in patients undergoing hip and knee surgery for the generation of anti-heparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies. Thromb Res 108:49-55, 2003a.

Ahmad S, Bacher P, Lassen MR, Hoppensteadt DA, Leitz H, Misselwitz F, Walenga JM, Fareed J. Investigations of the immunoglobulin subtype transformation of anti-heparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies during treatment with a low-molecular-weight heparin (Clivarin) in orthopedic patients. Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:584-588, 2003b.

Almeida JI, Liem TK, Silver D. Heparin-bonded grafts induce platelet aggregation in the presence of heparin-associated antiplatelet antibodies. J Vasc Surg 27:896-901, 1998a.

Almeida JI, Coats R, Liem TK, Silver D. Reduced morbidity and mortality rates of the heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome. J Vasc Surg 27:309-316, 1998b.

Alving BM, Shulman NR, Bell WR, Evatt BL, Tack KM. In vitro studies of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res 11:827-834, 1977.

Amiral J, Peynaud-Debayle E, Wolf M, Bridey F, Vissac A-M, Meyer D. Generation of antibodies to heparin-PF4 complexes without thrombocytopenia in patients treated with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin. Am J Hematol 52:90-95, 1996.

Anderson GP. Insights into heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 80: 504-508,1992.

Ansell J, Slepchuk N Jr, Kumar R, Lopez A, Southard L, Deykin D. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a prospective study. Thromb Haemost 43:61-65,1980.

Ansell JE, Price JM, Shah S, Beckner RR. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: What is its real frequency? Chest 88:878-882, 1985.

Bailey RT Jr, Ursick JA, Heim KL, Hilleman DE, Reich JW. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: a prospective comparison of bovine lung heparin, manufactured by new process, and porcine intestinal heparin. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 20:374-378, 1986.

Ball A, L'Huillier AM, Dreyfuss L, Porte JL, Barthel JC. Thrombopenie a la Fraxiparine. Une observation. Presse Med 18:1254-1255,1989.

Barradas MA, Mikhailidis DP, Epemolu O, Jeremy JY, Fonseca V, Dandona P. Comparison of the platelet proaggregatory effect of conventional unfractionated heparins and a low molecular weight heparin fraction (CY 222). Br J Haematol 67:451-457, 1987.

Bauer TL, Arepally G, Konkle BA, Mestichelli B, Shapiro SS, Cines DB, Poncz M, McNulty S, Amiral J, Hauck WW, Edie RN, Mannion JC. Prevalence of heparin-associated antibodies without thrombosis in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Circulation 95:1242-1246, 1997.

Bell WR. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. J Lab Clin Med 111:600-605, 1988.

Bell WR, Royall RM. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: a comparison of three heparin preparations. N Engl J Med 303:902-907, 1980.

Bell WR, Tomasulo PA, Alving FM, Duffy TP. Thrombocytopenia occurring during the administration of heparin. A prospective study in 52 patients. Ann Intern Med 85:155-160, 1976.

Bennett-Guerrero E, Slaughter TF, White WD, Welsby IJ, Greenberg CS, El-Moalem H, Ortel TL. Preoperative anti-PF4/heparin antibody level predicts adverse outcome after cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 130:1567-1572, 2005.

Bergmann JF, Neuhart E. A multicenter randomized double-blind study of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease in elderly in-patients bedridden for an acute medical illness. The Enoxaparin in Medicine Study Group. Thromb Haemost 76:529-534, 1996.

Boon DMS, Michiels JJ, Stibbe J, van Vliet HHDM, Kappers-Klunne MC. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and antithrombotic therapy [letter]. Lancet 344:1296, 1994.

Boon DMS, van Vliet HHDM, Zietse R, Kappers-Klunne MC. The presence of antibodies against a PF4-heparin complex in patients on haemodialysis [letter]. Thromb Haemost 76:480, 1996.

Boning A, Morschheuser T, Blase U, Scheewe J, von der Brelie M, Grabitz R, Cremer JT. Incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and therapeutic strategies in pediatric cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 79:62-65, 2005.

Borowiec J, Thelin S, Bagge L, Hultman J, Hansson H-E. Decreased blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass using heparin-coated circuit and 50% reduction of heparin dose. Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 26:177-185, 1992a.

Borowiec J, Thelin S, Bagge L, Nilsson L, Venge P, Hansson HE. Heparin-coated circuits reduce activation of granulocytes during cardiopulmonary bypass. A clinical study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 104:642-667,1992b.

Borowiec JW, By lock A, van der Linden J, Thelin S. Heparin coating reduces blood cell adhesion to arterial filters during coronary bypass: a clinical study. Ann Thorac Surg 55:1540-1545,1993.

Boshkov LK, Warkentin TE, Hayward CPM, Andrew M, Kelton JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: clinical and laboratory studies. Br J Haematol 84:322-328,1993.

Bouman CS, Oudemans-Van Straaten HM, Tijssen JG, Zandstra DF, Kesecioglu J. Effects of early high-volume continuous venovenous hemofiltration on survival and recovery of renal function in intensive care patients with acute renal failure: a prospective, randomized trial. Crit Care Med 30:2205-2011, 2002.

Bourhim M, Darnige L, Legallais C, Arvieux J, Cevallos R, Pouplard C, Vijayalakshmi MA. Anti-ß2-glycoprotein I antibodies recognizing platelet factor 4-heparin complex in antiphospholipid syndrome in patient substantiated with mouse model. J Molec Recognit 16:125-130, 2003.

Bouvier C. In: Van Aken WG, ed. Thrombocytopenia (and consumption coagulopathy) induced by heparin. A case report [discussion]. Scand J Haematol 25(suppl 36):85-90, 1980.

Brushwood DB. Hospital liable for allergic reaction to heparin used in injection flush. Am J Hosp Pharm 49:1491-1492, 1992.

Carrier M, Knoll GA, Kovacs MJ, Moore JC, Fergusson D, Rodger MA. The prevalence of antibodies to the platelet factor 4-heparin complex and association with access thrombosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Thromb Res [Epub ahead of print] Nov 10, 2006.

Casu B, Johnson EA, Mantovani M, Mulloy B, Oreste P, Pescador R, Prino G, Torri G, Zoppetti G. Correlation between structure, fat-clearing and anticoagulant properties of heparins and heparin sulphates. Arzneimittal, forschung Drug Res 33:135-142, 1983.

Chong BH, Castaldi PA. Platelet proaggregating effect of heparin: possible mechanism for nonimmune heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Aust NZ J Med 16:715-716, 1986.

Chong BH, Berndt MC. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blut 58:53-57, 1989.

Chong BH, Ismail F. The mechanism of heparin-induced platelet aggregation. Eur J Haematol 43:245-251, 1989.

Cipolle RJ, Rodvoid KA, Seifert R, Clarens R, Ramirez-Lassepas M. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: a prospective evaluation of 211 patients. Ther Drug Monit 5:205-211, 1983.

Creekmore FM, Oderda GM, Pendleton RC, Brixner DI. Incidence and economic implications of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in medical patients receiving prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism. Pharmacotherapy 26:1438-1445, 2006.

Crowther MA, Cook DJ, Meade MO, Griffith LE, Guyatt GH, Arnold DM, Rabbat CG, Geerts WH, Warkentin TE. Thrombocytopenia in medical-surgical critically ill patients: prevalence, incidence, and risk factors. J Crit Care 20:348-353, 2005.

De Raucourt E, Vinsonneau C, Juvin K, Fischer AM, Meyer G. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombotic complications during prophylactic treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 7:786-788, 1996.

de Sancho M, Lema MG, Amiral J, Rand J. Frequency of antibodies directed against heparin-platelet factor 4 in patients exposed to heparin through chronic hemodialysis [letter]. Thromb Haemost 75:695-696,1996.

Doty JR, Alving BM, McDonnell DE, Ondra SL. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia in the neurosurgical patient. Neurosurgery 19:69-72, 1986.

Elalamy I, Potevin F, Lecrubier C, Bara L, Marie JP, Samama MM. A fatal low-molecular-weight heparin-associated thrombocytopenia after hip surgery: possible usefulness of PF4-heparin ELISA test. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 7:665-671,1996.

Eldh P, Jacobsson B. Heparinized vascular catheters: a clinical trial. Radiology 111: 289-292,1974.

Elgue G, Blombäck M, Olsson P, Riesenfeld J. On the mechanism of coagulation inhibition on surfaces with end point immobilized heparin. Thromb Haemost 70:289-293, 1993.

Ellison J, Walker ID, Greer IA. Antenatal use of enoxaparin for prevention and treatment of thromboembolism in pregnancy. BJOG 107:1116-1121, 2000.

ENOXACAN Study Group. Efficacy and safety of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin for prevention of deep vein thrombosis in elective cancer surgery: a doubleblind randomized multicentre trial with venographic assessment. Br J Surg 84: 1099-1103, 1997.

Fausett MB, Vogtlander M, Lee RM, Esplin MS, Branch DW, Rodgers GM, Silver RM. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is rare in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:148-152, 2001.

Follea G, Hamandijan I, Trzeciak MC, Nedey C, Streichenberger R, Dechavanne M. Pentosane polysulfate associated thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res 42:413-418, 1986.

Foo SY, Everett BM, Yeh RW, Criss D, Laposata M, Van Cott EM, Jang IK. Prevalence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients undergoing cardiac catheteriza-tion. Am Heart J 152:290.e1-7, 2006.

Francis JL, Palmer GJ, Moroose R, Drexler A. Comparison of bovine and porcine heparin in heparin antibody formation after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 75:17-22, 2003.

Gallus AS, Goodall KT, Beswick W, Chesterman CN. Heparin-associated thrombocyto-penia: case report and prospective study. Aust NZ J Med 10:25-31, 1980.

Ganzer D, Gutezeit A, Mayer G, Greinacher A, Eichler P. Thromboembolieprophylaxe als auslöser thrombembolischer Komplicationen. Eine Untersuchung zur inzidenz der Heparin-induzierten Thrombozytopenie (HIT) Typ II. Z Orthop 135:543-549, 1997.

Ganzer D, Gutezeit A, Mayer G. Gefahrenpotentiale in der medikamentösen Thrombo-seprophylaxe-Niedermolekuläre Heparine versus Standardheparin. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 137:457-461, 1999.

Gettings EM, Brush KA, Van Cott EM, Hurford WE. Outcome of postoperative critically ill patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: an observational retrospective case-control study. Crit Care 10:R161, 2006. [Epub ahead of print]

Girolami B, Prandoni P, Stefani PM, Tanduo C, Sabbion P, Eichler P, Ramon R, Baggio G, Fabris F, Girolami A. The incidence of heparin induced thrombocytopenia in hospitalized medical patients treated with subcutaneous unfractionated heparin: a prospective cohort study. Blood 101:2955-2959, 2003.

Glock Y, Szmil E, Boudjema B, Boccalon H, Fournial G, Cerene AL, Puel P. Cardiovascular surgery and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Int Angiol 7:238-245, 1988.

Gluckman TJ, Segal JB, Fredde NL, Saland KE, Jani JT, Walenga JM, Prechel MM, Citro KM, Zidar DA, Fox E, Schulman SP, Kickler TS, Rade JJ. Incidence of antiplatelet factor 4/heparin antibody induction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. Am J Cardiol 95:744-747, 2005.

Goad KE, Horne MK III, Gralnick HR. Pentosan-induced thrombocytopenia: support for an immune complex mechanism. Br J Haematol 88:803-808, 1994.

Gouault-Heilman M, Payen D, Contant G, Intrator L, Huet Y, Schaeffer A. Thrombocy-topenia related to synthetic heparin analogue therapy [letter]. Thromb Haemost 54:557, 1985.

Green D. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Med J Aust 144(suppl):HS37-HS39,1986.

Green D, Martin GJ, Shoichet SH, DeBacker N, Bomalaski JS, Lind RN. Thrombocyto-penia in a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of bovine and porcine heparin. Am J Med Sci 288:60-64, 1984.

Greer IA, Nelson-Piercy C. Low-molecular-weight heparins for thromboprophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Blood 106:401-407, 2005

Greinacher A. Antigen generation in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: the non-immunologic type and the immunologic type are closely linked in their pathogen-esis. Semin Thromb Hemostas 21:106-116, 1995.

Greinacher A, Michels I, Schafer M, Kiefel V, Muller-Eckhardt C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia in a patient treated with polysulphated chondroitin sulphate: evidence for immunological crossreactivity between heparin and polysulphated glycosaminoglycan. Br J Haematol 81:252-254, 1992a.

Greinacher A, Drost W, Michels I, Leitl J, Gottsmann M, Kohl HG, Glaser M, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia successfully treated with the heparinoid Org 10172 in a patient showing cross-reaction to LMW heparins. Ann Haematol 64:40-42, 1992b.

Greinacher A, Michels I, Müller-Eckardt C. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: the antibody is not heparin-specific. Thromb Haemost 67:545-549, 1992c.

Greinacher A, Amiral J, Dummel V, Vissac A, Keifel V, Mueller-Eckhardt C. Laboratory diagnosis of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and comparison of platelet aggregation test, heparin-induced platelet activation test, and platelet factor 4/ heparin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Transfusion 34:381-385,1994.

Greinacher A, Zinn S, Wizemann, Birk UW. Heparin-induced antibodies as a risk factor for thromboembolism and haemorrhage in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis [letter]. Lancet 348:764, 1996.

Greinacher A, Völpel H, Janssens U, Hach-Wunderle V, Kemkes-Matthes B, Eichler P, Mueller-Velten HG, Pötzsch B. Recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) provides effective and safe anticoagulation in patients with the immunologic type of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Circulation 99:73-80,1999.

Greinacher A, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Kwasny H, Luz M. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thromboembolic complications: meta-analysis of 2 prospective trials to assess the value of parenteral treatment with lepirudin and its therapeutic aPTT range. Blood 96:846-851, 2000.

Greinacher A, Eichler P, Lietz T, Warkentin TE. Replacement of unfractionated heparin by low-molecular-weight heparin for postorthopedic surgery antithrombotic prophylaxis lowers the overall risk of symptomatic thrombosis because of a lower frequency of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [letter]. Blood 106:2921-2922, 2005a.

Greinacher A, Farner B, Kroll H, Kohlmann T, Warkentin TE, Eichler P. Clinical features of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia including risk factors for thrombosis. A retrospective analysis of 408 patients. Thromb Haemost 94:132-135, 2005b.

Greinacher A, Gopinadhan M, Gunther JU, Omer-Adam MA, Strobel U, Warkentin TE, Papastavrou G, Weitschies W, Helm CA. Close approximation of 2 platelet factor 4 tetramers by charge neutralization forms the antigens recognized by HIT antibodies. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2386-2393, 2006.

Gruel Y, Pouplard C, Nguyen P, Borg JY, Derlon A, Juhan-Vague I, Regnault V, Samama M, and the French Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Study Group. Biological and clinical features of low-molecular-weight heparin-induced thrombo-cytopenia. Br J Haematol 121:786-792, 2003.

Harbrecht U, Bastians B, Kredteck A, Hanfland P, Klockgether T, Pohl C. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in neurologic disease treated with unfractionated heparin. Neurology 62:657-659, 2004.

Heeger PS, Backstrom JT. Heparin flushes and thrombocytopenia [letter]. Ann Intern Med 105:143, 1986.

Hirsh J, Warkentin TE, Shaughnessy SG, Anand SS, Halperin JL, Raschke R, Granger C, Ohman Em, Dalen JE. Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin. Mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, dosing, monitoring, efficacy, and safety. Chest 119(suppl):64S-94S, 2001.

Hoh BL, Aghi M, Pryor JC, Ogilvy CS. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Type II in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: incidence and complications. Neurosurgery 57:243-248, 2005.

Holm HA, Eika C, Laake K. Thrombocytes and treatment with heparin from porcine mucosa. Scand J Haematol 36(suppl):81-84, 1980.

Jackson MR, Gillespie DL, Chang AS, Longenecker EG, Peat RA, Alving B. The incidence of heparin-induced antibodies in patients undergoing vascular surgery: a prospective study. J Vasc Surg 28:439-445, 1998.

Johnson RA, Lazarus KH, Henry DH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a prospective study. Am J Hematol 17:349-353, 1984.

Juhl D, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Strobel U, Wessel A, Greinacher A. Incidence and clinical significance of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA class in 755 consecutive patient samples referred for diagnostic testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol 76:420-426, 2006.

Kakkasseril JS, Cranley JJ, Panke T, Grannan K. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a prospective study of 142 patients. J Vasc Surg 2:382-384,1985.

Kannan M, Ahmad S, Ahmad F, Kale S, Hoppensteadt DA, Fareed J, Saxena R. Functional characterization of antibodies against heparin-platelet factor 4 complex in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia patients in Asian-Indians: relevance to inflammatory markers. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 16:487-490, 2005.

Kappa JR, Fisher CA, Berkowitz HD, Cottrell ED, Addonizio VP Jr. Heparin-induced platelet activation in sixteen surgical patients: diagnosis and management. J Vasc Surg 5:101-109, 1987.

Kappers-Klunne MC, Boon DMS, Hop WCJ, Michiels JJ, Stibbe J, van der Zwaan C, Koudstaal PJ, van Vliet HHDM. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: a prospective analysis of the incidence in patients with heart and cerebrovascu-lar diseases. Br J Haematol 96:442-446, 1997.

Kelton JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Haemostasis 16:173-186, 1986.

Klenner AF, Fusch C, Rakow A, Kadow I, Beyersdorff E, Eichler P, Wander K, Lietz T, Greinacher A. Benefit and risk of heparin for maintaining peripheral venous catheters in neonates: a placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr 143:741-745, 2003.

Konkle BA, Bauer TL, Arepally G, Cines DB, Poncz M, McNulty S, Edie RN, Mannion JD. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: bovine versus porcine heparin in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 71:1920-1924, 2001.

Koster A, Loebe M, Sodian R, Potapov EV, Hansen R, Muller J, Mertzlufft F, Crystal GJ, Kuppe H, Hetzer R. Heparin antibodies and thromboembolism in heparin-coated and noncoated ventricular assist devices. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 121: 331-335, 2001.

Koster A, Huebler S, Potapov E, Meyer O, Jurmann M, Weng Y, Pasic M, Drews T, Kuppe H, Loebe M, Hetzer R. Impact of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia on outcome in patients with ventricular assist device support: single-institution experience in 358 consecutive patients. Ann Thorac Surg 83:72-76, 2007.

Koul B, Vesterqvist O, Egberg N, Steen S. Twenty-four-hour heparin-free veno-right ventricular ECMO: an experimental study. Ann Thorac Surg 53:1046-1051, 1992.

Larm O, Larsson R, Olsson P. A new non-thrombogenic surface prepared by selective covalent binding of heparin via a modified reducing terminal residue. Biomater Med Devices Artif Organs 11:161-173,1983.

Larsson R, Larm O, Olsson P. The search for thromboresistance using immobilized heparin. Ann NY Acad Sci 516:102-115, 1987.

Laster J, Silver D. Heparin-coated catheters and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Vasc Surg 7:667-672,1988.

Laster J, Cikrit D, Walker N, Silver D. The heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome: an update. Surgery 102:763-770, 1987.

Lee DH, Warkentin TE, Denomme GA, Hayward CPM, Kelton JG. A diagnostic test for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: detection of platelet microparticles using flow cytometry. Br J Haematol 95:724-731,1996.

Lee EY, Hwang KY, Yang JO, Hong SY. Anti-heparin-platelet factor 4 antibody is a risk factor for vascular access obstruction in patients undergoing hemodialysis. J Korean Med Sci 18:69-72, 2003.

Leizorovicz A, Cohen AT, Turpie AG, Olsson CG, Vaitkus PT, Goldhaber SZ; PREVENT Medical Thromboprophylaxis Study Group. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of dalteparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Circulation 110:874-879, 2004.

Lepercq J, Conard J, Borel-Derlon A, Darmon JY, Boudignat O, Francoual C, Priollet P, Cohen C, Yvelin N, Schved JF, Tournaire M, Borg JY. Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy: a retrospective study of enoxaparin safety in 624 pregnancies. BJOG 108:1134-1140, 2001.

Leyvraz PF, Bachmann F, Hoek J, Büller HR, Postel M, Samama M, Vandenbroek MD. Prevention of deep vein thrombosis after hip replacement: randomised comparison between unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin. Br Med J 303: 543-548,1991.

Lindhoff-Last E, Eichler P, Stein M, Plagemann J, Gerdsen F, Wagner R, Ehrly AM, Bauersachs R. A prospective study on the incidence and clinical relevance of heparin-induced antibodies in patients after vascular surgery. Thromb Res 97: 387-393, 2000.

LindhofF-Last E, Nakov R, Misselwitz F, Breddin HK, Bauersachs R. Incidence and clinical relevance of heparin-induced antibodies in patients with deep vein thrombosis treated with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin. Br J Haematol 118:1137-1142, 2002.

Ling E, Warkentin TE. Intraoperative heparin flushes and subsequent acute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Anesthesiology 89:1567-1569, 1998.

Lo GK, Juhl D, Warkentin TE, Sigouin CS, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Evaluation of pretest clinical score (4 T's) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost 4:759-765, 2006.

Look KA, Sahud M, Flaherty S, Zehnder JL. Heparin-induced platelet aggregation vs platelet factor 4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia-thrombosis. Am J Clin Pathol 108:78-82, 1997.

Louridas G. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. S Afr J Surg 29:50-52,1991.

Lubenow N, Hinz P, Lietz T, Ladwig A, Jünger M, Ekkernkamp A, Greinacher A. Clinical HIT and HIT-antibody seroconversion in trauma patients receiving unfrac-tionated heparin vs. certoparin: a randomised, double-blind study [abstr]. Transfus Med Hemother 33(suppl 1):7, 2006.

Luzzatto G, Bertoli M, Cella G, Fabris F, Zaia B, Girolami A. Platelet count, anti-heparin/platelet factor 4 antibodies and tissue factor pathway inhibitor plasma antigen level in chronic dialysis. Thromb Res 89:115-122, 1998.

Magnani HN, Gallus A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). A report of 1,478 clinical outcomes of patients treated with danaparoid (Orgaran) from 1982 to mid-2004. Thromb Haemost 95:967-981, 2006.

Mahlfeld K, Franke J, Schaeper O, Kayser R, Grasshoff H. [Heparin-induced thrombo-cytopenia as a complication of postoperative prevention of thromboembolism with unfractionated heparin/low molecular weight heparin after hip and knee prosthesis implantation]. Unfallchirurg 105:327-331, 2002. German.

Malcolm ID, Wigmore TA, Steinbrecher UP. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: low frequency in 104 patients treated with heparin of intestinal mucosal origin. Can Med Assoc J 120:1086-1088,1979.

Masucci IP, Calis KA, Bartlett DL, Alexander HR, Horne MK III. Thrombocytopenia after isolated limb or hepatic perfusions with melphalan: the risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Surg Oncol 6:476-480,1999.

Martel N, Lee J, Wells PS. Risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with unfractio-nated and low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis: a meta-analysis. Blood 106:2710-2715, 2005.

Martinuzzo M, Forastiero RR, Adamczuk Y, Pombo G, Carreras LO. Antiplatelet factor 4—heparin antibodies in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Res 95:271-279,1999.

Marx A, Huhle G, Hoffmann U, Wang LC, Schule B, Jani L, Harenberg J. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia after elective hip joint replacement with postoperative prevention of thromboembolism with low-molecular-weight heparin]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 137:536-539,1999. German.

Matsuo T, Tomaru T, Kario K, Hirokawa T, HIT Research Group of Japan. Incidence of heparin-PF4 complex antibody formation and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in acute coronary syndrome. Thromb Res 115:475-481, 2005.

Mattioli AV, Bonetti L, Sternieri S, Mattioli G. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with unfractionated heparin: prevalence of thrombosis in a 1 year follow-up. Ital Heart J 1:39-42, 2000.

Mayo DJ, Cullinane AM, Merryman PK, Horne MK III. Serologic evidence of heparin sensitization in cancer patients receiving heparin flushes of venous access devices. Support Care Cancer 7:425-427, 1999.

Monreal M, Lafoz E, Salvador R, Roncales J, Navarro A. Adverse effects of three different forms of heparin therapy: thrombocytopenia, increased transaminases, and hyperkalemia. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 37:415-418, 1989.

Mureebe L, Coats RD, Silliman WR, Shuster TA, Nichols WK, Silver D. Heparin-associated antiplatelet antibodies increase morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Surgery 136:848-853, 2004.

Murray PT, Hursting MJ. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients administered heparin solely for hemodialysis. Ren Fail 28:537-539, 2006.

Nakamoto H, Shimada Y, Kanno T, Wanaka K, Matsuo T, Suzuki H. Role of platelet factor 4-heparin complex antibody (HIT antibody) in the pathogenesis of thrombotic episodes in patients on hemodialysis. Hemodial Int 9(suppl 1):S2-S7, 2005.

Nand S, Wong W, Yuen B, Yetter A, Schmulbach E, Gross Fisher S. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis: incidence, analysis of risk factors, and clinical outcomes in 108 consecutive patients treated at a single institution. Am J Hematol 56:12-16, 1997.

Napolitano LM, Warkentin TE, Almahameed A, Nasraway SA. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in the critical care setting: diagnosis and management. Crit Care Med 34:2898-2911, 2006.

Nelson JC, Lerner RG, Goldstein R, Cagin NA. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Arch Intern Med 138:548-552, 1978.

Ng HJ, Lee LH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: acknowledging its presence in low-molecular-weight heparin therapy. Int J Hematol 77:185-187, 2003.

O'Shea SI, Sands JJ, Nudo SA, Ortel TL. Frequency of anti-heparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies in hemodialysis patients and correlation with recurrent vascular access thrombosis. Am J Hematol 69:72-73, 2002.

Palomo I, Pereira J, Alarcon M, Diaz G, Hidalgo P, Pizarro I, Jara E, Rojas P, Quiroga G, Moore-Carrasco R. Prevalence of heparin-induced antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. J Clin Lab Anal 19:189-195, 2005.

Parney IF, Steinke DE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis following sub-arachnoid hemorrhage. Case report. J Neurosurg 93:136-139, 2000.

Peña de la Vega L, Miller RS, Benda MM, Grill DE, Johnson MG, McCarthy JT, McBane RD II. Association of heparin-dependent antibodies and adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients: a population-based study. Mayo Clin Proc 80:995-1000, 2005.

Plath J, Schulze R, Barz D, Krammer B, Steiner M, Anders O, Mach J. Necrotizing skin lesions induced by low-molecular-weight heparin after total knee arthroplasty. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 116:443-445, 1997.

Pohl C, Kredteck A, Bastiens B, Hanfland P, Klockgether T, Harbrecht U. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in neurologic patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin. Neurology 64:1285-1287, 2005.

Pouplard C, May MA, Lochmann S, Amiral J, Vissac AM, Marchand M, Gruel Y. Antibodies to platelet factor 4-heparin after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients anticoagulated with unfractionated heparin or a low-molecular-weight heparin: clinical implications for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Circulation 99: 2530-2536, 1999.

Pouplard C, May MA, Regina S, Maakaroun A, Fusciardi J, Gruel Y. Changes in the platelet count after cardiopulmonary bypass can efficiently predict the development of pathogenic heparin-dependent antibodies [abstr]. Blood 100:16a-17a, 2002.

Pouplard C, May MA, Regina S, Marchand M, Fusciardi J, Gruel Y. Changes in platelet count after cardiac surgery can effectively predict the development of pathogenic heparin-dependent antibodies. Br J Haematol 128:837-841, 2005.

Powers PJ, Cuthbert D, Hirsh J. Thrombocytopenia found uncommonly during heparin therapy. JAMA 241:2396-2397,1979.

Powers PJ, Kelton JG, Carter CJ. Studies on the frequency of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res 33:439-443, 1984.

Prandoni P, Siragusa S, Girolami B, Fabris F; BELZONI Investigators Group. The incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in medical patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin: a prospective cohort study. Blood 106:3049-3054, 2005.

Rao AK, White GC, Sherman L, Colman R, Lan G, Ball AP. Low incidence of thrombocytopenia with porcine mucosal heparin. A prospective multicentre study. Arch Intern Med 149:1285-1288, 1989.

Rama BN, Haake RE, Bander SJ, Ghasem-Zadeh A, Gorla C. Heparin-flush associated thrombocytopenia-induced hemorrhage: a case report. Nebr Med J 76:392-394, 1991.

Ramirez-Lassepas M, Cipolle RJ, Rodvold KA, Seifert RD, Strand L, Taddeini L, Cusulos M. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with cerebrovascular ischemic disease. Neurology 34:736-740, 1984.

Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA, Andrew M. Benefit of heparin in peripheral venous and arterial catheters: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 316:969-975,1998a.

Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA, Andrew M. Benefit of heparin in central venous and pulmonary artery catheters. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chest 113:165-171,1998b.

Rice L, Jackson D. Can heparin cause clotting? Heart Lung 10:331-335, 1981.

Rice L, Kennedy D, Veach A. Pentosan induced cerebral sagittal sinus thrombosis: a variant of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. J Urol 160:2148, 1998.

Ridker PM, Cushman M, Stampfer MJ, Tracy RP, Hennekens CH. Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. N Engl J Med 336:973-979, 1997.

Risch L, Fischer JE, Schmugge M, Huber AR. Association of anti-heparin platelet factor 4 antibody levels and thrombosis in pediatric intensive care patients without thrombocytopenia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 14:113-116, 2003.

Romeril KR, Hickton CM, Hamer JW, Heaton DC. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: case reports and a prospective study. NZ Med J 95:267-269, 1982.

Rosenthal MA, Rischin D, McArthur G, Ribbons K, Chong B, Fareed J, Toner G, Green MD, Basser RL. Treatment with the novel anti-angiogenic agent PI-88 is associated with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. Ann Oncol 13:770-776, 2002.

Saffle JR, Russon J Jr, Dukes GE, Warden GD. The effect of low-dose heparin therapy on serum platelet and transaminase levels. J Surg Res 28:297-305, 1980.

Samama MM, Cohen AT, Darmon JY, Desjardins L, Eldor A, Janbon C, Leizorovicz A, Nguyen H, Olsson CG, Turpie AG, Weisslinger N. A comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Prophylaxis in Medical Patients with Enoxaparin Study Group. N Engl J Med 341:793-800, 1999.

Sanson BJ, Lensing AWA, Prins MH, Ginsberg JS, Barkagan ZS, Lavenne Pardonge E, Brenner B, Dulitzky M, Nielsen JD, Boda Z, Turi S, MacGillavry MR, Hamulyak K, Theunissen IM, Hunt BJ, Biiller HR. Safety of low-molecular-weight heparin in pregnancy: a systematic review. Thromb Haemost 81:668-672, 1999.

Schenk S, El-Banayosy A, Prohaska W, Arusoglu L, Morshuis M, Koester-Eiserfunke W, Kizner L, Murray E, Eichler P, Koerfer R, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients receiving mechanical circulatory support. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 131:1373-1381, 2006.

Schenk S, El-Banayosy A, Morshuis M, Arusoglu L, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Tenderich

G, Koerfer R, Greinacher A, Prohaska W. IgG classification of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies to identify patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia during mechanical circulatory support. J Thromb Haemost 5:235-241, 2007.

Schmugge M, Risch L, Huber AR, Benn A, Fischer JE. Heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia-associated thrombosis in pediatric intensive care patients. Pediatrics 109:E10, 2002.

Schwartz KA, Royer G, Kaufman DB, Penner JA. Complications of heparin administration in normal individuals. Am J Hematol 19:355-363, 1985.

Selleng K, Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in intensive care patients. Crit Care Med 35:1165-1176, 2007.

Serruys PW, Emanuelsson H, van der Giessen W, Lunn AC, Kiemeney F, Macaya C, Rutsch W, Heyndrickx G, Suryapranata H, Legrand V, Goy JJ, Materne P, Bonnier

H, Morice M-C, Fajadet J, Belardi J, Colombo A, Garcia E, RuygrokP, de Jaegere P, Morel M-A on behalf of the Benestent-II Study Group. Heparin-coated Palmaz-

Schatz stents in human coronary arteries. Early outcome of the Benestent-II pilot study. Circulation 93:412-422, 1996.

Sheridan D, Carter C, Kelton JG. A diagnostic test for heparin-induced thrombocytope-nia. Blood 67:27-30, 1986.

Shumate MJ. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [letter]. N Engl J Med 333:1006-1007, 1995.

Silver D, Kapsch DN, Tsoi EK. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, and hemorrhage. Ann Surg 198:301-306, 1983.

Simonneau G, Sors H, Charbonnier B, Page Y, Laaban JP, Azarian R, Lauent M, Hirsch JL, Ferrari E, Bosson JL, Mottier D, Beau B. A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin with unfractionated heparin for acute pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 337:663-669, 1997.

Singer RL, Mannion JD, Bauer TL, Armenti FR, Edie RN. Complications from heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Chest 104:1436-1440, 1993.

Sitter T, Spannagl M, Banas B, Schiffl H. Prevalence of heparin-induced PF4-heparin antibodies in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 79:245-246, 1998.

Skouri H, Gandouz R, Abroug S, Kraiem I, Euch H, Gargouri J, Harbi A. A prospective study of the prevalence of heparin-induced antibodies and other associated throm-boembolic risk factors in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis. Am J Hematol 81:328-334, 2006.

Stead RB, Schafer AI, Rosenberg RD, Handin RI, Josa M, Khuri SF. Heterogeneity of heparin lots associated with thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism. Am J Med 77:185-188, 1984.

Stéphan F, Hollande J, Richard O, Cheffi A, Maier-Redelsperger M, Flahault A. Thrombocytopenia in a surgical ICU. Chest 115:1363-1370,1999.

Strauss R, Wehler M, Mehler K, Kreutzer D, Koebnick C, Hahn EG. Thrombocytopenia in patients in the medical intensive care unit: bleeding prevalence, transfusion requirements, and outcome. Crit Care Med 30:1765-1771, 2002.

Sturtevant JM, Pillans PI, Mackenzie F, Gibbs HH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recent experience in a large teaching hospital. Int Med J 36:431-436, 2006.

Suh JS, Aster RH, Visentin GP. Antibodies from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis recognize different epitopes on heparin: platelet factor 4. Blood 91:916-922, 1998.

Tardy-Poncet B, Tardy B, Grelac F, Reynaud J, Mismetti P, Bertrand JC, Guyotat D. Pentosan polysulfate-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Am J Hematol 45:252-257, 1994.

Tardy B, Page Y, Tardy-Poncet B, Comtet C, Zeni F, Bertrand JC. Thrombopénie induite par une héparine de bas poids moléculaire [letter]. Therapie 45:453,1990.

Tardy B, Tardy-Poncet B, Fournel P, Venet C, Jospe R, Dacosta A. Lower limb veins should be systematically explored in patients with isolated heparin-induced throm-bocytopenia [letter]. Thromb Haemost 82:1199-1200,1999.

Trossaert M, Gaillard A, Commin PL, Amiral J, Vissac AM, Fressinaud E. High incidence of anti-heparin/platelet factor 4 antibodies after cardiopulmonary bypass. Br J Haematol 101:653-655,1998.

Turpie AG. Thrombosis prophylaxis in the acutely ill medical patient: insights from the prophylaxis in MEDical patients with ENOXaparin (MEDENOX) trial. Am J Cardiol 86:48M-52M, 2000.

Verma AK, Levine M, Shalansky SJ, Carter CJ, Kelton JG. Frequency of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in critical care patients. Pharmacotherapy 23:745-753, 2003.

Visentin GP, Malik M, Cyganiak KA, Aster RH. Patients treated with unfractionated heparin during open heart surgery are at high risk to form antibodies reactive with heparin: platelet factor 4 complexes. J Lab Clin Med 128:376-383,1996.

Vitoux JF, Roncato M, Hourdbhaigt P, Aiach M, Fiessinger J-N. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and pentosan polysulfate: treatment with a low molecular weight heparin despite in vitro platelet aggregation [letter]. Thromb Hemost 55:294-295, 1985.

Vonderheide RH, Thadhani R, Kuter DJ. Association of thrombocytopenia with the use of intra-aortic balloon pumps. Am J Med 105:27-32, 1998.

Wallis DE, Workman DL, Lewis BE, Steen L, Pifarre R, Moran JF. Failure of early heparin cessation as treatment for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Med 106:629-635, 1999.

Walls JT, Curtis JJ, Silver D, Boley TM, Schmaltz RA, Nawarawong W. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in open heart surgical patients: sequelae of late recognition. Ann Thorac Surg 53:787-791, 1992a.

Walls JT, Boley TM, Curtis JJ, Silver D. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients undergoing intra-aortic balloon pumping after open heart surgery. ASAIO J 38: M574-M576, 1992b.

Wan C, Warner M, De Varennes B, Ergina P, Cecere R, Lachapelle K. Clinical presentation, temporal relationship, and outcome in thirty-three patients with type 2 heparin-induced thrombocytopenia after cardiotomy. Ann Thorac Surg 82:21-26, 2006.

Warkentin TE. Limitations of conventional treatment options for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Semin Hematol 35(suppl 4):17-25, 1998.

Warkentin TE. Platelet count monitoring and laboratory testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recommendations of the College of American Pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:1415-1423, 2002.

Warkentin TE. Pork or beef? Ann Thorac Surg 75:15-16, 2003.

Warkentin TE. Think of HIT. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 408-414, 2006a.

Warkentin TE. HIT: lessons learned. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 35:50-57, 2006b.

Warkentin TE, Crowther MA. When is HIT really HIT? Ann Thorac Surg 83:21-23, 2007.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recognition, treatment, and prevention. The Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 126(3 suppl):311S-337S, 2004.

Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Unfractionated LMWH and the risk of HIT: are medical patients different? Blood 106:2931-2932, 2005.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Prog Hemost Thromb 10:1-34, 1991.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Interaction of heparin with platelets, including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. In: Bounameaux H, ed. Low-Molecular-Weight Hepar-ins in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Thromboembolic Diseases. New York: Marcel Dekker, 75-127,1994.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. A 14-year study of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Med 101:502-507, 1996.

Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. Temporal aspects of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med 344:1286-1292, 2001.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI. No significant improvement in diagnostic specificity of an anti-PF4/polyanion immunoassay with use of high heparin confirmatory procedure. J Thromb Haemost 4:281-282, 2006a.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI. Testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies. Transfus Med Rev 20:259-272, 2006b.

Warkentin TE, Levine MN, Hirsh J, Horsewood P, Roberts RS, Gent M, Kelton JG. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low-molecular weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med 332:1330-1335, 1995.

Warkentin TE, Elavathil LJ, Hayward CPM, Johnston MA, Russett JI, Kelton JG. The pathogenesis of venous limb gangrene associated with heparin-induced thrombocy-topenia. Ann Intern Med 127:804-812, 1997.

Warkentin TE, Chong BH, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: towards consensus. Thromb Haemost 79:1-7,1998a.

Warkentin TE, Ling E, Ho A, Sheppard JI. "Incidental" unfractionated heparin (UFH) vs normal saline (NS) flushes for intraoperative invasive catheters and the frequency of formation of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia IgG antibodies (HIT-IgG): a randomized, controlled trial [abstr]. Blood 92(suppl 1):91b, 1998b.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI, Horsewood P, Simpson PJ Moore JC, Kelton JG. Impact of the patient population on the risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 96:1703-1708, 2000.

Warkentin TE, Roberts RS, Hirsh J, Kelton JG. An improved definition of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative orthopedic patients. Arch Intern Med 163:2518-2524, 2003.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI, Moore JC, Moore KM, Sigouin CS, Kelton JG. Laboratory testing for the antibodies that cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: how much class do we need? J Lab Clin Med 146:341-346, 2005a.

Warkentin TE, Cook RJ, Marder VJ, Sheppard JI, Moore JC, Eriksson BI, Greinacher A, Kelton JG. Anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in orthopedic surgery patients receiving antithrombotic prophylaxis with fondaparinux or enoxaparin. Blood 106:3791-3796, 2005b.

Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI, Sigouin CS, Kohlmann T, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Gender imbalance and risk factor interactions in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 108:2937-2941, 2006a.

Warkentin TE, Jay RM, Makris M, Kelton JG. Platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4/ polyanion antibodies without preceding heparin therapy: a transient autoimmune disorder resembling heparin-induced thrombocytopenia ("spontaneous HIT") [abstr]. Blood 108:311a-312a, 2006b.

Warkentin TE, Maurer BT, Aster RH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia associated with fondaparinux [letter]. N Engl J Med 2007; in press.

Weismann RE, Tobin RW. Arterial embolism occurring during systemic heparin therapy. Arch Surg 76:219-227, 1958.

Weitberg AB, Spremulli E, Cummings FJ. Effect of low-dose heparin on the platelet count. South Med J 75:190-192,1982.

Wester JP, Haas FJ, Biesma DH, Leusink JA, Veth G. Thrombosis and hemorrhage in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in seriously ill patients. Intensive Care Med 30:1927-1934, 2004.

Williams RT, Damaraju LV, Mascelli MA, Barnathan ES, Califf RM, Simoons ML, Deliargyris EN, Sane DC. Anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. An independent predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction after acute coronary ischemic syndromes. Circulation 107:2307-2312, 2003.

Wolf H, Nowak H, Wick G. Detection of antibodies interacting with glycosaminogly-cans polysulfate in patients treated with heparin or other polysulfated glycosamino-glycans. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 70:157-163, 1983.

Yamamoto S, Koide M, Matsuo M, Suzuki S, Ohtaka M, Saika S, Matsuo T. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 28:82-85, 1996.

Yeh RW, Everett BM, Foo SY, Dorer DJ, Laposata M, Van Cott EM, Jang IK. Predictors for the development of elevated anti-heparin/platelet factor 4 antibody titers in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Am J Cardiol 98:419-421, 2006.

Yu A, Jacobson SH, Bygden A, Egberg N. The presence of heparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies as a marker of hypercoagulability during hemodialysis. Clin Chem Lab Med 40:21-26, 2002.

Zwicker JI, Uhl L, Huang WY, Shaz BH, Bauer KA. Thrombosis and ELISA optical density in hospitalized patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost 2:2133-2137, 2004.

Allergy Relief

Allergy Relief

Have you ever wondered how to fight allergies? Here are some useful information on allergies and how to relief its effects. This is the most comprehensive report on allergy relief you will ever read.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment