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FIGURE 5.5 Assay for testing heparin-dependent antibodies, associated with HIT, by their binding to functionally available heparin through the heparin cofactor antigen (usually PF4); heparin is coated in a large excess as a complex with aprotinin or biotinylated and reacted with coated streptavidin. Abbreviations: EIA, enzyme-immunoassay; IL-8, interleukin-8; PF4, platelet factor 4; SA, streptavidin; TMB, tetramethyl benzidine; UFH, unfractionated heparin.

FIGURE 6.2 (A) Computer-generated model (WebLab ViewerPro; Molecular Simulation Inc., San Diego, CA) of the human PF4 tetramer, based on the crystallographic coordinates. (B) AC dimer view of human PF4: the amino acid residues crucial for heparin binding are displayed. Abbreviation: PF4, platelet factor 4.

FIGURE 6.2 (A) Computer-generated model (WebLab ViewerPro; Molecular Simulation Inc., San Diego, CA) of the human PF4 tetramer, based on the crystallographic coordinates. (B) AC dimer view of human PF4: the amino acid residues crucial for heparin binding are displayed. Abbreviation: PF4, platelet factor 4.

PF4Tetramer (Front View)

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