Organspecific Autoimmune Disorders

Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Autoantibodies that react with red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets result in anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, respectively. 2. Multiple myeloma, the malignant transformation of a single plasma cell clone, results in an excess of IgG or another immunoglobulin class (paraproteins). Patients may secrete Bence Jones proteins (monoclonal light chains) in their urine. B. Central nervous system (CNS) disorders 1 Allergic...

Genetic Control Of The Tcell Antigenic Receptor

The TCR is a dimer of either a and (3 chains (approximately 95 ) or y and 5 chains (approximately 5 ). 1. In contrast to the monomeric IgM antigen receptor on the B-cell membrane, the TCRs do not respond to soluble antigens. 2. TCRs recognize antigenic epitopes only as peptidic fragments bound to either class I or class II HLA molecules on an antigen-presenting cell (APC) e.g., dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells . A Translation Splicing Transcription Figure 5-4. Synthesis of...

Development Of The Immune System

Multipotential stem cells originate in the fetal liver and bone marrow. 1. T cells. When stem cells migrate to the fetal thymus, they acquire the phenotypic characteristics of T cells under the influence of thymic hormones (Figure 1-1). a. Clusters of differentiation (CD). These phenotypic markers appear on the T cell membrane as proteins at different stages of differentiation in the thymus. (1) CD2 and CD3 are major markers retained on all peripheral T cells. (2) CD4 defines a T helper cell...

Overview

Ouchterlony Diffusion

Immunologic assays detect antigen-antibody Ag-Ab reactions in vitro e.g., agglutination of bacteria or cells or precipitation of soluble antigens or in vivo. B. Ag-Ab reactions. The union of antigen with antibody is specific and firm, but reversible multiple short-range forces are involved. 1. Binding occurs in seconds but is not visible until a lattice forms, which occurs more slowly. The composition of the lattice depends on the ratio of antigen to antibody. a. Affinity measures the...

Cancer Immunology

A cancer is a malignant tumor growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis. ONCOGENES. Cancers arise from cells in which growth-regulating and repair genes protooncogenes have become ineffective as a result of random mutation or following viral infection or physical or chemical damage. When protooncogenes become altered or damaged, they are termed oncogenes and are capable of causing neoplastic growth. Examples of oncogenes and their actions include the...

General Properties

Antibodies are mucoproteins that are found in the y-globulin fraction of serum on electrophoresis. These mucoproteins are called immunoglobulins Ig . 1. Five classes. When injected into animals, human immunoglobulin becomes antigenic. The resulting antihuman immunoglobulin antibodies are grouped into five classes IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgD. 2. Structure. The basic structural unit for each class is a four-chain protein with two heavy H and two light L chain polypeptides linked by...

Antigenantibody AgAb Complex Type Iii Reactions

Circulating Ag-Ab complexes of small size, with antigen in slight excess escape phagocytosis and deposit in tissues or on the surface of blood vessels Figure 8-1 . These complexes can cause damage by 1. Activating complement and releasing the chemotactic factor C'5a, anaphylatoxins, and clotting factors 2. Attracting neutrophils to the area of deposition, where they release lysosomal enzymes that attack the tissue B. Examples of Ag-Ab complex reactions 1 Arthus reaction. This...

Cell Surface Antigenantibody AgAb Cytotoxicity Type Ii Reactions

Cytotoxicity occurs when antibody is directed against epitopes that occur on the surface membrane of host cells. Damage results from 1. The osmotic, lytic action of complement. Complement is activated when the antibody binds to the membrane antigen. 2. Opsonization by phagocytic cells or killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytolysis ADCC . Linkage of the Fc receptor and or the C'3b receptor on the cytotoxic cell to the Fc domain on the antibody bound to the target cell...

High Yield Immunology

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology University of Minnesota Acquisitions Editor Elizabeth A. Nieginski Editorial Director, Development Julie P. Scardiglia Development Editor Melanie Cann Managing Editor Karla M. Schroeder, Marette Magargle-Smith Marketing Manager Jennifer Conrad Copyright 1999 By Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be produced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by...