Discover The Secret Of Immortality
Medusae are produced by the hydroid in summer months and can survive in the laboratory for one month. A peculiarity of this species is the possibility of ontogeny reversal under laboratory conditions the medusae, in fact, can rearrange their tissues and go back to the polyp stage if subjected to sub-lethal stress and also at the end of their lifespan, after spawning. For this reason, this medusa has been called the immortal jellyfish by the media.
Quoted from Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift, 1726, on learning that although the Struldbruggs (immortals) live forever, they were not a living treasury of knowledge and wisdom . . . and oracle of the nation but became progressively demented with age. As for much of human history, average life expectancy was 20 to 30 but by 1801 reached 35.9 years in England and Wales.
The advent of monoclonal antibody technology solved the problems of antibody heterogeneity and made possible the method of epitope tagging for protein detection. Monoclonal antibodies are produced by mouse lymphocytes. An antigen having multiple epitopes is injected into the mouse and B lymphocyte differentiation is allowed to initiate. Multiple B lymphocyte clones each producing a different antibody specific to a particular epitope of the antigen will begin to undergo this differentiation process. The immunized mouse is sacrificed, the B-lymphocyte-containing spleen removed, and the developing B lymphocytes fused with an 'immortal' line of B lymphocyte tumor cells. Normally, B lymphocytes are able to undergo only a very limited number of divisions in culture, but these tumor cell fusions divide indefinitely. Individual hybrid cell clones are cultured separately and allowed to produce their unique antibody. This immortalized antibody-producing B lymphocyte cell line is called a...
To the phenotype of aging, as an involvement in the definition of longevity can be assumed from high levels of chaperone expression as a common denominator in conditions or procedures leading to an increase in cellular and species longevity as well as in the process of cellular immortalization. The inherent immortality of the embryonic stem cells implies that replicative senescence as possibly aging are epigenetic phenomena, possibly influenced by the progressive age-related epigenetic changes in promoter methylation that have the potential to permanently silence gene expression (Krall, 2005).
As witnessed by the search for the fountain of youth and the time-honored popularity of tales and treatments concerned with the aging process, prolongevity has been a continuing quest since the dawn of human history. Although the commercial and health literature abounds with suggestions for staying healthy, looking good, and living as long as one can, the inevitability of corporeal existence is universally recognized. Acceptance of personal mortality does not mean, however, that the human life span cannot be prolonged. But in order to achieve prolongevity, if not immortality, we first need to know what makes us age.
Since Podospora and Neurospora (Ascomycotina) are commonly used in genetical research, their stocks are maintained by regular subculturing. Not surprisingly, the phenomenon of senescence is best documented in these two fungi. In the mycelium of Podospora anserina, the mycelium grows to a limited extent following the germination of ascospores. Therefore, senescence in this species is a part of its normal development. On the other hand, Neurospora is potentially immortal. Some stocks of this fungus used by Beadle and Tatum over fifty years ago (Chapter 5) are still alive after numerous subcultures. However, nearly 30 of strains of N. intermedia collected from the island of Kauai in Hawaii and from Maddur in peninsular India have died in 5 to 50 subcultures. Initially, a senescent strain is morphologically indistinguishable from a long-living strain. However, as subculturing continues, the quantity of aerial mycelium is reduced, conidia are not formed, the respiratory activity diminishes...
E. glomeratum medusa 3. Immortal jellyfish (Turritopsis nutricula) polyp 4. T. nutricula medusa 5. Hy-drichthys mirus medusa 6. Hydractinia echinata polyp 7. Liriope tetraphylla medusa 8. H. mirus polyp 9. Distichopora violacea polyp 10. Solmundella bitentaculata medusa 11. Aglantha digitale 12. Halammohydra schulzei polyp. (Illustration by Emily Damstra)
Since ancient times, coriander has been enjoyed by many cultures for its culinary and medicinal values. Coriander is mentioned in Sanskrit literature as far back as 5000 BC and in Greek Eber Papyrus as early as 1550 BC. About 400 BC, Hippocrates, the Greek physician, recommended coriander for its medicinal value. Coriander was found in Egyptian tombs dating from 1090 BC. As early as fourth century BC, the Chinese ate it to attain immortality. The Arabs used it as an aphrodisiac, while the Romans used it as a seasoning.
Cloning is the process of making many identical cells (or organisms) from a single precursor. If that precursor contains a target DNA molecule of interest, the cloning process will amplify that single molecule into a whole population. Most single-cell organisms are clonal. Their progeny are identical replicas. Cloning can also be done by manipulating single, immortal, or immortalizable cells of higher organisms including plants and animals. Here we concentrate on bacterial cloning, which can be carried out in a large number of different species but often involves the favorite laboratory organism Escherichia coli.
Man contains within himself a most profound contradiction. At the conscious, intellectual level he is absolutely convinced that he must die, this belief being reinforced and sustained by contacts with those around him who share it, as well as by the knowledge of the deaths of others. He can be more certain ofhis death than of his name. His unconscious is immortal, however, denying the reality of his death and not allowing him to imagine himself dead. There is absolutely no way to eradicate the emotional feeling of immortality, so that the individual's emotions deny his death quite as steadfastly as his intellect affirms it. I never thought much about death and an afterlife when I was growing up. Of course, there was some talk about dying, and an occasional funeral, but these events were of more interest in themselves than for what happened to the deceased afterward. Like many other children, I was told that if I was good I would go to heaven, but if I was bad I would go to hell....
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of differentiating into endothelial cells, both in vivo and in vitro. ES cells are remarkable cells derived in the laboratory from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst (Martin, 1981). When isolated, murine ES cells are immortal and pluripotent. They can contribute to all embryonic lineages, including the germ line, when injected into a blastocyst and allowed to develop (Bradley et al., 1984). They also maintain their pluripotency indefinitely when cultured in vitro (Nagy et al., 1993). In recent years, many directed differentiation methods have been reported in which murine ES cells can be preferentially driven into specific differentiated cells types, including neural progenitors (Brustle et al., 1997), hematopoietic lineages (Kennedy et al., 1997), cardiomyocytes (Klug et al., 1996) and endothelial cells (Wang et al, 2004 Levenberg et al, 2002 Gerecht-Nir et al, 2003 Itskovitz-Eldor et al., 2000). ES cell lines have also been derived...
A very significant finding, but seldom discussed, is the unique resistance of human cells to chemical carcinogenesis in culture, as demonstrated in in vitro neoplastic transformation studies. Neoplastic transformation in vitro means the immortalization of a primary cell culture to become established cell lines and to acquire neoplastic phenotypes, including the ability to form a tumor in immuno-deficient mice. In these studies, rodent cells have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to transform spontaneously, even without chemical treatments, and transformation can easily be enhanced by chemicals. In contract, normal diploid human cells have never been observed to transform spontaneously, and chemical transformation has been extremely difficult, even by very potent carcinogens. In the past 40 years, only a few highly experienced laboratories have reported successful chemical transformation of diploid human cells in culture (114-119). In many cases, transformation was only achievable...
Death of the self (fourteenth and fifteenth centuries). Individuality was minimized. Without a last confession, at the moment of death, the immortal soul of the person was seized by a devil instead ofan angel. Thus, dying in one's sleep or otherwise without confessing one's sins was to be avoided at all costs.
Body, and inheritance did not take place from the body of the parent to the child. This was his theory of the continuity of the germ plasm. There could be no inheritance of acquired characteristics unless those characteristics were acquired directly by the germ cells. The germ cells were potentially immortal, whereas the body cells, or somatic cells, were transient. In effect, the body was merely the carrier of the germ cells, which are held in trust for coming generations.51 Thus, Weismann proposed a fundamental duality of immortal germ cells giving rise to transitory bodies. As Samuel Butler (1835-1902) phrased it, A chicken was just an egg's way of making another egg.
The degree of emotional pain and the added intensity in these clinics are linked to the fact that a future child is involved. Symbolically, the foetus is an everyday miracle of life created by individuals, representing their love. Abnormalities in this area can be regarded as an attack on the individual's creativity and an interruption of the sense of immortality carried in the future generations. The fact that a child is involved easily engages a counsellor's compassion and empathy. This is essential for the success of the consultation, but in this area there is possibly a greater risk that the counsellor will be over-involved or identify with the grieving parents.
Fungi are organisms generally composed of tubes that are invisible to the naked eye. The cells of these tubes are multinucleate and in cytoplasmic continuity. Fungi are among the oldest and largest living organisms, rivaling the mass of a California redwood tree or a blue whale. As the chief agents of decomposition of organic matter, fungi contribute to the sustenance of the carbon cycle. As mycorrhizal partners of roots, they provide the primary mechanism for the capture of nutrients used by plants, thereby contributing to the green cover on earth. Some fungi occur as endophytes in plants or as symbiotic partners with algae, allowing the mutualistic partners to tolerate and grow in harsh conditions that they could not do otherwise. As virulent pathogens of plants, fungi are a constant threat in agriculture and forestry. Since antiquity, fungus has been exploited either unwittingly or intentionally for the conversion of grape juice into ethanol in wine. As producers of antibacterial...
Inbred strains have been described as immortal clones of genetically identical individuals, and as such, have many useful properties that make them the animal of choice, where they are available, for many types of research. The main properties of these strains are as follows
In contrast to individual honeybees, colonies are perennial and potentially immortal through the continuous replacement of their members. The queen, as the only reproducing individual, can live several years (see below), but is regularly replaced by her own daughters (reviewed by Page and Peng, 2001). As part of the regular reproductive cycle, replacement queens are raised and the old queen leaves the nest in a swarm with the majority (50-90 ) of the workers present to establish a new colony. One of the new queens takes over the remaining colony, killing all other young queens and engaging in mating flights (Severson, 1984). In contrast, the male reproductive role of honeybee colonies is exerted throughout the mating season by the continuous production of drones. These seek out matings from unrelated virgin queens during mating flights (Winston, 1987). After
Recently, the standard of proof in molecular biology has required demonstration of gene function by knocking out or overexpressing a gene in an experimental system. This comparison is not yet possible at the organismal level in ants either through selective breeding or gene transfer, but has been successfully achieved for primary tissue culture in S. invicta (Consoli, 2002 Chen, 2004). To date, no one has developed an immortal cell line for any social insect. Eventually, one may find a way to breed the ant model systems above, either by simulating the natural mating conditions or by artificial insemination as is done for honey bees, but neither has yet been accomplished.
Greek legend says that the gods turned a beautiful nymph named Daphne into an evergreen laurel tree when she was fleeing from Apollo's (Greek god of prophecy, medicine, and poetry) love. The Greek name for bay leaf is daphnee. In ancient Greece, the winners of Olympic games were decorated with laurel wreaths, and these leaves became an immortal symbol of victory and courage. When Greek physicians completed their studies, they were crowned with laurel branches called the baca lauris, and which later gave rise to the term baccalaureate, which means completion of a degree. The Romans, who used these wreaths in honor of Apollo, made laurel leaf a popular spice in their cooking. The word bay is derived from Latin baca, meaning berry.
Americans are also strong in their beliefs in a life after death. Over 90 of all American adults indicate that they believe in God and that they pray (Koenig, Kvale, &Ferrel, 1988). The great majority also say that they believe in heaven and that they have a good chance of going there when they die (Woodward, 1989). Greater percentages of older than younger adults, of whites than blacks, of Southerners and Midwesterners than Easterners and Westerners, and of those who live in nonmetropolitan than metropolitan areas express beliefs in immortality and the hereafter (Bearon & Koenig, 1990 Gallup & Proctor, 1982).
When the threat involves a longed-for child and the genetic investigation is about fertility or the possibility of a child being born with abnormalities, considerable anxiety is raised as the threat is of a particular nature. Children are the future, an expression of the adult's immortal self and usually create a good sense of ongoing life. They carry the embodiment of the parents' creativity and this idea is interrupted by the possibility of passing on the 'bad gene'. It is at odds with the idea of giving the child something good. Sometimes parents feel they have harmed what is most dearly cherished and this triggers feelings of personal responsibility, blame and destructiveness.
The cytogenetic assays are used to detect test articles that damage chromosomes (clastogens) and concomitantly, test articles that interfere with normal chromosome segregation (aneuploid inducers). Chromosome aberration is a valid genetic marker for carcinogen identification because all cancer cells are heteroploid with constant change of their chromosome compositions. Indeed, heteroploid conversion from the diploid karyotype is an inevitable step for the establishment of immortal cell lines that may lead to cancer cells (10). Chromosome aberrations are tested in both in vitro and in vivo systems.
Cancer defines a group of diseases with a strong genetic basis represented by the culmination of multiple genomic alterations. These alterations can either be inherited or can occur in response to exogenous factors such as radiation or endogenous factors such as superoxide radicals. The alterations manifest as point mutations, deletions, insertions, translocation, inversions, and amplifications. Cytogenetic techniques such as karyotyping, CGH and SKY have enhanced our ability to detect these alterations within cancerous cells. This work has helped to direct research to particular regions of chromosomes and to specific genes. Each cell is equipped with mechanisms to repair these genetic mutations. Sometimes, these mechanisms themselves become targets of inactivation, which may accelerate the rate at which mutations accumulate. The progression to cancer is not always linear, as not all genes respond to mutation in the same manner. Many parts of the genome may be damaged without material...
Youth is the most wonderful time of life it's too bad it is wasted on the young. This has probably been the unexpressed sentiment of many older adults who wake up one morning to find grey hair, wrinkles, sagging cheeks, and a double chin in the mirror, hair in the wash basin, and aches, pains, and stiffness in places where they did not even know they had places. The physical changes that accompany aging appear gradually, not without warning, but nevertheless disturbing the eternal summer of young adulthood, when it seems as if one might very well live forever. In our more rational, reflective moments, we realize that we cannot remain perpetually young, but the mind rarely entertains the thought of personal mortality, and denial keeps us going during the endless round of days.
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