Speed Issues in Visualization Systems

Speed issues often become the essential factors that determine the usefulness of a visualization system. Visualization involves two types of basic graphic operations: One is related to the geometry, such as the transformation of the vertices of a polygon, and the other is associated with displaying pixels. In the graphics processing pipeline, the overhead can happen in either of these two operations and adversely affect the speed of the entire system. Thus, for instance, drawing a large number of small triangles would cause overhead in the transformation computations associated with the vertices, while the pixel filling operation for the small triangles would be fast. The opposite is true when the number of triangles is few but their size is large. Thus, an optimal balance between the two factors yields a good overall system performance. Another factor that affects speed is the geometric technique used in visualization. A simple technique may execute much faster because of its use of instruction and memory cache, whereas a more intelligent and elaborate technique that does not make effective use of instruction and memory cache will be slower. Since biomedical images are usually large, efficient use of cache capabilities of the hardware is essential.

FIGURE 17 Virtual microscopy: visualization of nerve cells. (Left top) Tiles of images (~ 150pcs each 640 x 480 pixels) acquired using light microscope at 1000 x . (Left bottom) Seamlessly stitched virtual field of view image that can help follow single axons of the cell. (Right) Ventral spinal root from an individual dying of acute motor axonal neuropathy. Macrophages are seen insinuating their way into periaxonal space through the node of Ranvien. (Images courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Tony Ho, Aline Fang-Ling Li, John Griffin, Raghu Raghavan.)

FIGURE 17 Virtual microscopy: visualization of nerve cells. (Left top) Tiles of images (~ 150pcs each 640 x 480 pixels) acquired using light microscope at 1000 x . (Left bottom) Seamlessly stitched virtual field of view image that can help follow single axons of the cell. (Right) Ventral spinal root from an individual dying of acute motor axonal neuropathy. Macrophages are seen insinuating their way into periaxonal space through the node of Ranvien. (Images courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Tony Ho, Aline Fang-Ling Li, John Griffin, Raghu Raghavan.)

FIGURE 18 3D visualization of microtubules. Immunofluorescence labeling of U20S (human osteosarcoma) cells with monoclonal antibody to tubulin and a rhodamine-labeled secondary antibody against mouse monoclonal antibody. The images were acquired using a Noran confocal microscope. (Image courtesy of Douglas Murphy, M. Solaiyappan.)

FIGURE 18 3D visualization of microtubules. Immunofluorescence labeling of U20S (human osteosarcoma) cells with monoclonal antibody to tubulin and a rhodamine-labeled secondary antibody against mouse monoclonal antibody. The images were acquired using a Noran confocal microscope. (Image courtesy of Douglas Murphy, M. Solaiyappan.)

FIGURE 19 3D visualization of actin filaments. Reconstruction of a mouse fibroblast with antibodies revealing microtubules and actin filaments, imaged using a Zeiss confocal microscope exciting in the FITC and TRITC fluorescence spectra.

FIGURE 20 3D visualization of live human embryo, age 5 days (blastocyst). (Left) Four images from optical microscope at varying focal plane. (Right) 3D volume by deconvolution showing the inner cell mass. (Images courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Fong Chui Yee, Ariffeen Bongso, Rakesh Mullick, Raghu Raghavan.)

FIGURE 20 3D visualization of live human embryo, age 5 days (blastocyst). (Left) Four images from optical microscope at varying focal plane. (Right) 3D volume by deconvolution showing the inner cell mass. (Images courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Fong Chui Yee, Ariffeen Bongso, Rakesh Mullick, Raghu Raghavan.)

FIGURE 21 3D visualization of lesion-deficit associations. The development of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) was studied using a voxel-based approach for a spatial statistical technique (Fisher's exact test) applied to a population of children involved in frontal lobe injury. Higher intensity (left image) shows higher confidence of association in those regions. Right image shows the associated regions in a color-mapped 3D Talairach atlas registered to the volume. See also Plate 117. (Images courtesy of V. Megalooikonomou, C. Davatzikos, E. H. Herskovits, M. Solaiyappan.)

FIGURE 21 3D visualization of lesion-deficit associations. The development of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) was studied using a voxel-based approach for a spatial statistical technique (Fisher's exact test) applied to a population of children involved in frontal lobe injury. Higher intensity (left image) shows higher confidence of association in those regions. Right image shows the associated regions in a color-mapped 3D Talairach atlas registered to the volume. See also Plate 117. (Images courtesy of V. Megalooikonomou, C. Davatzikos, E. H. Herskovits, M. Solaiyappan.)

FIGURE 22 Visualization of the displacement field during heart motion. (Left) Triplanar view of a 3D parametric map (top) used for the 3D texture mapping of a NURBS representation of the displacement field (center) and modulated with image data (bottom). (Right) Cine-frames of volumetric rendering of the NURBS generated displacement fields during the full cardiac cycle, starting from end diastole at top left. (Frame order: left-to-right, top-to-bottom.) (Images courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Cengizhan Ozturk, Elliot McVeigh, Albert Lardo.)

FIGURE 22 Visualization of the displacement field during heart motion. (Left) Triplanar view of a 3D parametric map (top) used for the 3D texture mapping of a NURBS representation of the displacement field (center) and modulated with image data (bottom). (Right) Cine-frames of volumetric rendering of the NURBS generated displacement fields during the full cardiac cycle, starting from end diastole at top left. (Frame order: left-to-right, top-to-bottom.) (Images courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Cengizhan Ozturk, Elliot McVeigh, Albert Lardo.)

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