Quantification of the material properties of bone, such as strength and elastic modulus, using noninvasively measured parameters is important to predict fracture risk and evaluate effects of treatment for osteoporotic patients. Osteoporotic change is initiated from trabecular bone within both ends of long bones, vertebral bodies of the spine, flat bones such as the pelvis, and carpal and tarsal bones. Therefore, fractures related to osteoporosis occur in the trabecular-bone-rich regions. The vertebral body, distal radius (wrist joint), and proximal femur (hip joint) are the most common sites for fractures associated with the osteoporosis. There are three major approaches (assumptions) to predicting material properties (Fig. 10).
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