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FIGURE 20 Virtual endoscopic visualization of polyp within sigmoid, showing enhancement of detail and measurement of polyp geometry and composition.

Image Brain Enhancement

FIGURE 21 3D visualization of registered and fused MR, CT and SPECT scans of patient with epilepsy to define surgical target for resection. MR image shows brain parenchyma, CT image shows skull and subdural electrodes for identification of motor strip, and SPECT image shows activation region causing seizures. Fused images can be used to simulate, rehearse, and quantitatively define margins used in the surgery.

FIGURE 21 3D visualization of registered and fused MR, CT and SPECT scans of patient with epilepsy to define surgical target for resection. MR image shows brain parenchyma, CT image shows skull and subdural electrodes for identification of motor strip, and SPECT image shows activation region causing seizures. Fused images can be used to simulate, rehearse, and quantitatively define margins used in the surgery.

Cytoreduction And Prostate Cancer

FIGURE 22 Video image of craniotomy (left) and visualization of 3D tumor and cerebral vessels registered and fused with live video image (right) during neurosurgery. Such visualizations provide useful navigation and tumor targeting and accurate cytoreduction margins during the operation.

ment or "watchful waiting." These measures include prostate tumor size and microvessel density, which have been shown to be useful indicators of the metastatic potential of the tumor.

An important application of volume modeling in prostate cancer treatment is shown in Fig. 23, where 3D MRI scans of the prostate gland and surrounding region are segmented and rendered in four different views, with transparency. The ability to visualize the tumor in relationship to the intricate anatomic structures in this region, including the neurovascular bundles and seminal vesicles, is helpful to preoperative planning of surgical approaches to tumor resection that spare the critical tissues [27]. The lower right-hand panel shows the tumor next to the urethra as it courses through the prostate, and the faint shadow of a seminal vesicle can be seen adjacent to the tumor r k- Ift h> V^ ■ * '

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