Homogeneous and Isotropic Model

Only the density is evaluated in this model. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and QCT are usually used for the density measurement.

components constitute only the edges of the trabeculae. On the other hand, the effect of masking the low-frequency zone for the collagen fiber image is not noticeable. Low-frequency components do not include structural information for collagen fibers, and masking the low-frequency component does not suppress the characteristics of each collagen fiber (Fig. 9) [19].

Masking of the low-frequency zone influences the density of the thick architecture such as trabeculae, and it may affect the estimation of structural anisotropy based on volume orientation or area orientation. Application of a larger image array with an appropriate filter may be helpful to overcome this problem. Estimation of anisotropy based on surface orientation is possible by using high-frequency component images.

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