Gradient Density Measures GD

As mentioned earlier, the 2D "optimal" filters that have been developed for 2D edge detection are not appropriate for estimating the local gradient in textured images because of the multiplicity of edges present in them. Much more appropriate are small filters that avoid the problem of interference. Such a filter for 3D images has been proposed by Zucker and Hummel [30]. This filter is 3 x 3 x 3 in size and is represented here by its three cross-sections orthogonal to the direction of convolution:

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