Fifth Generation Systems I Modeling and Simulation

Modeling represents a significant thrust in biomedical research. It attempts to build analytical formulations that describe physiological functions and involves such multi-disciplinary fields as finite-element modeling and computation fluid dynamics (Figs 11-14). Visualization needs in modeling have been minimal in the past, primarily due to the complexity of the models. The focus was on quantitative or analytical verification rather than on visual validation thought to be optional. However, over the years, the scope of models that could be built and the extent to which they can be studied became limited when all the necessary input information to define model parameters became unavailable. The new approach that was needed to address such modeling problems emerged in visualization, since it could enable researchers to qualitatively validate the model. Visualization techniques that are employed in modeling packages are more suitable for engineering applications than for biomedical applications,

FIGURE 10 Visualization using back-projection reconstruction. (Left) Illustration of reconstruction. (Right) Clinical applications. (Top) Coronary vessel studies. (Bottom) Aneurysm localization studies using conventional sweep arm rotational angio systems. (Images courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Nick Bryan, Timothy Eckel, Cliff Belden.)

FIGURE 10 Visualization using back-projection reconstruction. (Left) Illustration of reconstruction. (Right) Clinical applications. (Top) Coronary vessel studies. (Bottom) Aneurysm localization studies using conventional sweep arm rotational angio systems. (Images courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Nick Bryan, Timothy Eckel, Cliff Belden.)

smeared, i.e., painted parallel to the direction in which the image is acquired, on an image reconstruction buffer. By back-projecting corresponding scan lines from each projection image into the reconstruction buffer, transverse-images of the desired 3D image can be obtained (Fig. 10) [29]. Recent advances in graphics hardware, such as texture mapping, enable rapid reconstruction using the back-projection technique rather than traditional generic CPU based approaches.

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