Contents

Foreword ix

Preface xi

Contributors xiii

I Enhancement

1 Fundamental Enhancement Techniques Raman B. Paranjape 3

2 Adaptive Image Filtering Carl-Fredrik Westin, Hans Knutsson, and Ron Kikinis 19

3 Enhancement by Multiscale Nonlinear Operators Andrew Laine and Walter Huda 33

4 Medical Image Enhancement with Hybrid Filters Wei Qian 57

II Segmentation

5 Overview and Fundamentals of Medical Image Segmentation Jadwiga Rogowska 69

6 Image Segmentation by Fuzzy Clustering: Methods and Issues Melanie A. Sutton, James C. Bezdek,

Tobias C. Cahoon 87

7 Segmentation with Neural Networks Axel Wismiller, Frank Vietze, and Dominik R. Dersch 107

8 Deformable Models Tim Mclnerney and Demetri Terzopoulos 127

9 Shape Constraints in Deformable Models Lawrence H. Staib, Xiaolan Zeng, James S. Duncan, Robert T. Schultz, and Amit Chakraborty 147

10 Gradient Vector Flow Deformable Models Chenyang Xu and Jerry L. Prince 159

11 Fully Automated Hybrid Segmentation of the Brain M. Stella Atkins and Blair T. Mackiewich 171

12 Volumetric Segmentation Alberto F. Goldszal and Dzung L. Pham 185

13 Partial Volume Segmentation with Voxel Histograms David H. Laidlaw, Kurt W. Fleischer, and Alan H. Barr . . 195

III Quantification

14 Two-Dimensional Shape and Texture Quantification Isaac N. Bankman, Thomas S. Spisz, and Sotiris Pavlopoulos 215

15 Texture Analysis in Three Dimensions as a Cue to Medical Diagnosis Vassili A. Kovalev and Maria Petrou. . . . 231

16 Computational Neuroanatomy Using Shape Transformations Christos Davatzikos 249

17 Arterial Tree Morphometry Roger Johnson 261

18 Image-Based Computational Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System Edmund Y. Chao, N. Inoue, J.J. Elias, and F.J. Frassica 285

19 Three-Dimensional Bone Angle Quantification Jens A. Richolt, Nobuhiko Hata, Ron Kikinis, Jens Kordelle, and Michael B. Millis 299

20 Database Selection and Feature Extraction for Neural Networks Bin Zheng 311

21 Quantitative Image Analysis for Estimation of Breast Cancer Risk Martin J. Yaffe, Jeffrey W. Byng, and Norman F. Boyd 323

22 Classification of Breast Lesions in Mammograms Yulei Jiang 341

23 Quantitative Analysis of Cardiac Function Osman Ratib 359

24 Image Processing and Analysis in Tagged Cardiac MRI William S. Kerwin, Nael F. Osman, and Jerry L. Prince . 375

25 Image Interpolation and Resampling Philippe Thevenaz, Thierry Blu, and Michael Unser 393

IV Registration

26 Physical Basis of Spatial Distortions in Magnetic Resonance Images Peter Jezzard 425

27 Physical and Biological Bases of Spatial Distortions in Positron Emission Tomography Images Magnus Dahlbom and Sung-Cheng (Henry) Huang 439

28 Biological Underpinnings of Anatomic Consistency and Variability in the Human Brain N. Tzourio-Mazoyer,

F. Crivello, M. Joliot, and B. Mazoyer 449

29 Spatial Transformation Models Roger P. Woods 465

30 Validation of Registration Accuracy Roger P. Woods 491

31 Landmark-Based Registration Using Features Identified Through Differential Geometry Xavier Pennec,

Nicholas Ayache, and Jean-Philippe Thirion 499

32 Image Registration Using Chamfer Matching Marcel Van Herk 515

33 Within-Modality Registration Using Intensity-Based Cost Functions Roger P. Woods 529

34 Across-Modality Registration Using Intensity-Based Cost Functions Derek L.G. Hill and David J. Hawkes 537

35 Talairach Space as a Tool for Intersubject Standardization in the Brain Jack L. Lancaster and Peter T. Fox 555

36 Warping Strategies for Intersubject Registration Paul M. Thompson and Arthur W. Toga 569

37 Optimizing the Resampling of Registered Images William F. Eddy and Terence K. Young 603

38 Clinical Applications of Image Registration Robert Knowlton 613

39 Registration for Image-Guided Surgery Eric Grimson and Ron Kikinis 623

40 Image Registration and the Construction of Multidimensional Brain Atlases Arthur W. Toga and Paul M. Thompson 635

V Visualization

41 Visualization Pathways in Biomedicine Meiyappan Solaiyappan 659

42 Three-Dimensional Visualization in Medicine and Biology Richard A. Robb 685

43 Volume Visualization in Medicine Arie E. Kaufman 713

44 Fast Isosurface Extraction Methods for Large Image Data Sets Yarden Livnat, Steven G. Parker, and Christopher R. Johnson 731

45 Morphometric Methods for Virtual Endoscopy Ronald M. Summers 747

VI Compression Storage and Communication

46 Fundamentals and Standards of Compression and Communication Stephen P. Yanek, Quentin E. Dolecek,

Robert L. Holland, and Joan E. Fetter 759

47 Medical Image Archive and Retrieval Albert Wong and Shyh-Liang Lou 771

48 Image Standardization in PACS Ewa Pietka 783

49 Quality Evaluation for Compressed Medical Images: Fundamentals Pamela Cosman, Robert Gray, and Richard Olshen 803

50 Quality Evaluation for Compressed Medical Images: Diagnostic Accuracy Pamela Cosman, Robert Gray, and Richard Olshen 821

51 Quality Evaluation for Compressed Medical Images: Statistical Issues Pamela Cosman, Robert Gray, and Richard Olshen 841

52 Three-Dimensional Image Compression with Wavelet Transforms Jun Wang and H.K. Huang 851

53 Medical Image Processing and Analysis Software Thomas S. Spisz and Isaac N. Bankman 863

Index 895

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