Fig. 2.1.1. Achiral artificial receptors for the recognition of carbohydrates via hydrogen bonds [1, 3h].

groups, this approach is neither biomimetic nor supramolecular since - although only moderately strong and reversible - covalent bonds are formed during binding [2]. Non-covalent, intermolecular binding can be achieved by hydrogen bonding through (an)ionic or neutral hydrogen bond-donor and -acceptor groups, as in natural examples [1, 3]. Other than natural models, however, most of the receptors reported so far have been designed to be effective in organic solutions to profit not only from the directionality of hydrogen bonds but also to obtain a maximum energetic contribution to overall binding (Box 7). Figures 2.1.1-2.1.3 show some

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