Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
During the past few years, the usage of deformable anatomical atlases has been extensively investigated as an appealing tool for the coding of prior anatomical information for image interpretation. The method is based on a representative deterministic 14 or probabilistic 15 image volume as an anatomical model. For this the actual patient data has to be spatially normalized, thus it has to be mapped onto the template that conforms to the standard anatomical space used by the model. The applied registration procedures range from simple parametric edge matching 16 and rigid registration methods over to increasingly more complex algorithms using affine, projective, and curved transformations. Other methods use complex physically inspired algorithms for elastic deformation or viscous fluid motion 17 . In the latter the transformations are constrained to
Examine the human skeleton and locate the following parts. Palpate as many of the corresponding bones in your own skeleton as possible. 4. Study a textbook section on skeletal structures. Locate each of the following features (bone markings) on the bone listed, noting the size, shape, and location in the human skeleton
Human skeleton, articulated samples of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae human skeleton, disarticulated The vertebral column, consisting of twenty-six bones, extends from the skull to the pelvis and forms the vertical axis of the human skeleton. The column is composed of many vertebrae, which are separated from one another by cartilaginous intervertebral disks and are held together by ligaments.
My students have found that certain study skills worked well for them while enrolled in Human Anatomy and Physiology. Although each individual has a somewhat different learning style, there are techniques that work well for the majority of students. Utilizing some of the skills listed here could make your course more enjoyable and rewarding.
A section called Study Skills for Anatomy and Physiology is located in the front material. This section was written by students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course. is available. The title is Intelitool Supplementary Lab Exercises to Accompany the Laboratory Manual for Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology (0-697-27976-6). 11. The Instructor's Manual to Accompany Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Fetal Pig Dissection describes the purpose of the laboratory manual and its special features, and provides suggestions for presenting the laboratory exercises to students, (0-07-235890-4)
The human skeleton is preformed in the early fetus, but the early form is not of bony material. There are two types of bones according to their preformed basis membranous bones and cartilage bones. These are in the location and have the general shape of the adult bones they will later become.
The skeleton is a combination of bones joined together that serves as a support or framework of the human body. (para 4-1) 2. The four functions of the human skeleton are a. Axial skeleton--the central framework of the human body-including the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.
The axial skeleton is the central framework of the human body. It includes the skull, the vertebral column (spine), and the thoracic cage (chest or rib cage). Figure 4-3A. Anterior view of the human skeleton. Figure 4-3A. Anterior view of the human skeleton. Figure 4-3B. Posterior view of the human skeleton. Figure 4-3B. Posterior view of the human skeleton.
Nails are modified claws found on the first digit of some arboreal mammals and on all the digits of some primates. Nails cover only the dorsal part of digits. The unguis (called a nail plate in human anatomy) is broad and flat, and the sub-unguis is vestigial. It has been suggested that nails evolved in primates to prevent rolling and provide flat support for the large pad of tactile sensory tissue found on the underside of the digit. Thus nails allow both increased tactile perception and enhanced manipulative abilities. The Callitrichidae (small monkeys found in South and Central America) have secondarily evolved claws, which are not true claws because they are derived from the laterally compressed nails of their ancestors. Nails and claws may be found on the same mammal (e.g., hyraxes).
Placing this analogy in the context of computational neuroanatomy, we need three steps in order to construct a representation of an individual's anatomy. First, we must choose a unit. Here, the unit is a template of anatomy, perhaps an anatomical atlas 8 or the result of some statistical averaging procedure yielding an average brain'' 3 . Second, we need to define a procedure for comparing an individual brain with the template. In the framework described herein, this is accomplished via a shape transformation that adapts the template to the shape of the brain under analysis. This shape transformation is analogous to the stretching of a measure over the length of an object. Embedded in this transformation are all the morphological characteristics of the individual brain, expressed with respect to those of the template. Finally, the third component necessary for shape comparisons is a means of comparing two brains whose morphology has been
Internal anatomy of the heart. The walls of the heart contain three layers the superficial epicardium the middle myocardium, which is composed of cardiac muscle and the inner endocardium. Note that cardiac muscle cells contain intercalated disks that enable the cells to communicate and allow direct transmission of electrical impulses from one cell to another. (Fig. 21.3, p. 553 from Human Anatomy, 4th Ed. by Frederic H. Martini, Michael J. Timmons, and Robert B. Tallitsch. 2003 by Frederic H. Martini, Inc. and Michael J. Timmons.) Fig. 7. Internal anatomy of the heart. The walls of the heart contain three layers the superficial epicardium the middle myocardium, which is composed of cardiac muscle and the inner endocardium. Note that cardiac muscle cells contain intercalated disks that enable the cells to communicate and allow direct transmission of electrical impulses from one cell to another. (Fig. 21.3, p. 553 from Human Anatomy, 4th Ed. by Frederic H. Martini, Michael J....
Figure 17-3 Anatomy and histology of the thymus gland. (A) Locations and comparative sizes at different stages of growth. Reproduced from Kahle, W., Leonhardt, H., and Platzer, W. (1978). Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy, Vol. 2, p. 93. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, IL. (B, p. 686) Histological organization of the thymus. The thymus is encapsulated and divided into lobules by septa. Densely packed dividing lymphocytes form a network of epithelioid cells in the cortex to the medulla. There are fewer lymphocytes in the medulla that contain more bone marrow-derived interdigitating cells. There is a close association of the developing lymphocytes with epithelial and interdigitating cells. Functions of the corpuscle structures are unknown. Reproduced from Roitt, I. M., Brostoff, J., and Male, D. K. (1985). Immunology, p. 14.3. Gower Medical Pub. Ltd. figure 17-3 Anatomy and histology of the thymus gland. (A) Locations and comparative sizes at different stages of growth....
The establishment of human fecal microbes within animals, provides the opportunity for the study of a microbiota of human origin within these animals. Human flora associated animals (HFA) have proven to be particularly valuable in studies of the metabolic and immunological activities of the human microbiota. Athough HFA animals are valuable for investigations related to the human microbiota, several differences between animal and human physiology may influence colonization by the human microbiota in animal hosts. Such differences may promote host-specific colonization by microorganisms in different animals (92,93). As a result, microbes of human origin may be disadvantaged in the animal GIT, compared to isolates originating from this particular animal species.
Nevertheless, the use of baboons and other nonhuman primates has many advantages as an experimental model in transplant research. First, the size and anatomy of the baboon is very similar to human anatomy. Second, the growth of the baboon can be controlled, and adult weights in the range of20-30 kg are maintained for 20-30 yr. In addition, cardiac physiological characteristics of the baboon are similar to humans, allowing for the use of standard operative instrumentation.
The significance and validity with respect to usefulness in terms of extrapolatability of results generated in an animal model depend on the selection of a suitable animal model. A good knowledge of comparative anatomy and physiology is an obvious advantage when developing an animal model. Animal models may be found throughout the animal kingdom, and knowledge about human physiology has been achieved in species far removed from the human in terms of evolutionary development. A good example is the importance of the fruit fly for the original studies of basic genetics. Animal models are used in virtually every field of biomedical research, as reflected in the chapters of this book.
It is important to keep in mind that DTI tractography is simply defining a model system for brain connectivity. The choice of a particular seed point will influence the derived tracts because of the inherent noise in the data acquisition and the sensitivity of the chosen algorithm to this noise. Tractog-raphy is blind to whether the seed point derives from a functional activation or from a well-placed ROI based on expert anatomical knowledge. Therefore, the tracts indicate only the possibility of an anatomical connection between a set of regions tracts based on functional activations carry no additional meaning relative to those derived based on anatomical knowledge. Methods such as those being developed by the Oxford group (e.g., Behrens et al. 2006) will allow for refined anatomical models, but then the task will be to move beyond describing the possibility for information flow to describing how and when information is conveyed along the identified connections.
Recently, the use of nonhuman primates also was advocated as being close to human physiology and pathophysiology (Bruns et al., 2004). Obviously their use is not easy and is very costly. Nevertheless, in some circumstances their use, such as the study of factors related to insulin sensitivity, proved to be very rewarding.
Broadly speaking, modern animal experimentation began in seventeenth-century England and France. It has been central to our understanding of animal and human physiology ever since. A famous early example is William Harvey's investigation of the role of the heart in blood circulation. Observing the hearts of live animals with opened thoraxes, Harvey was able to see that the blood circulates in the body as a result of contractions of the heart.
Anatomic structures, particularly those in the brain, can also be identified using a standardized reference coordinate system or functional image data can be fitted to a standard anatomical atlas (e.g., Talairach space) with the aid of anatomical landmarks or contours 55-58 . This idea is somewhat similar to the model-based approaches where analytically or parametrically defined models
Vesalius' own anatomy education was typical for the time. The professor sat in his chair (hence professorships are called 'chairs') and read out loud from the only locally available textbook. He sat at a safe distance from a human body that was being dissected by his assistant. It did not take long for Vesalius to realize that he and his fellow students were being told one thing by their professor, and were being shown something else by the professor's assistant. In 1540 Vesalius visited Bologna where, for the first time, he was able to compare the skeletons of a monkey and a human. He realized the textbooks used by his professors were based on a confusing mixture of human, monkey, and dog anatomy, so he resolved to write his own, accurate, human anatomy book. The result, the seven-volume De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem, or 'On the Fabric of the Human Body', was published in 1543. Vesalius performed the dissections and sketched the drafts of the illustrations the Fabrica is...
Humans are the best and the worst of all organisms for genetic study. On the one hand, we know more about human anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry than we know about most other organisms for many families, we have detailed records extending back many generations and the medical implications of genetic knowledge of humans provide tremendous incentive for genetic studies. On the other hand, the study of human genetic characteristics presents some major obstacles.
Genetic dissection of signaling pathways in human disease is the current challenge in drug target identification. The ability to generate libraries of cDNAs from human tissue sources and clone into mammalian expression vectors is enabling this field. Harnessing viruses to introduce libraries blan-ketly into cells, paired with advances in human tissue culture systems and phenotypic readouts have ushered in the age of human cell genetics. In the late 1980s, Brian Seed established the expression screening approach in mammalian cells and laid the groundwork for functional gene identification in cell systems relevant to human physiology (Allen and Seed, 1989). In the technology's infancy, functional cDNA expression screening identified genes such as LFG, an antiapoptotic gene, Toso, a T-cell surface receptor that blocks FAS-induced apoptosis, multiple members of the JAK and STAT interferon signaling cascade, and NF-kB activating genes such as IKK-gamma (Darnell et al., 1994 Hitoshi et al.,...
Visualization techniques have been used to examine the morphology and function of neurons from selected ganglia in the mammalian peripheral autonomic nervous system 17,40,64 . To understand neuron physiology, information about a neuron's shape and dimensions is needed to integrate and localize multiple synaptic inputs. The number and location of selective neurotransmitter receptor sites provides valuable information about the potential response of a neuron to a specific neurotransmitter. Such visualization applications may be termed spatial physiology'' 17,40,64 , in which function of microstructures is studied. 3D images of miniature structures, including the ganglia and individual cells contained therein, obtained with 3D microscopy can be appropriately positioned within 3D renderings or models of the body to provide visualizations that span several orders of magnitude in scale space. Figure 30 illustrates such a global framework and context for study of microstructures. This figure...
Human female torso, with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera removed. Chapter One Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Human female torso, with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera removed. Chapter One Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Shier-Butler-Lewis Human Anatomy and Shier-Butler-Lewis Human Anatomy and
Alcohol is arguably the oldest drug known to man, its use dating back at least 10,000 yr to the dawn of human civilization (1). Although illicit drug use often receives more attention in contemporary society, alcohol abuse exacts a devastating toll In the United States at present, over 7 of the population meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or alcoholism (2), over 28 of children under 18 yr of age are exposed to alcohol abuse or dependence in the home (3), and the overall economic cost to society of alcohol abuse has been estimated at 185 billion (4). Despite intensive research since the latter part of the previous century, it is clear that the biological actions that are responsible for the characteristic effects of ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, on human physiology and behavior are still incompletely understood. Because of the simple chemical structure of ethanol (it differs from water only by two methylene groups) and its low potency (it produces most of its biological effects...
While no one strain is a perfect model for all aspects of human aging, different strains have characteristics valuable for modeling specific aspects of human physiology or disease, and the use of inbred strains allows the investigator to choose a model with characteristics pertinent to the questions at hand. For example, DBA 2 mice are useful for modeling epilepsy and related seizure disorders, as they are very sensitive to audiogenic and electrogenic seizures, while C57BL 6 mice are resistant
The human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. These bones are arranged in two groups the axial skeleton which is composed of the central bones of the body (skull, hyoid, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column) and the appendicular skeleton which contains the bones of the shoulder and pelvic girdles and of the arms and legs.
The human skeleton is divided into two parts the axial and the appendicular (Fig 1.4). The axial skeleton shapes the longitudinal axis of the human body. It is composed of 22 bones of the skull, 7 bones associated with the skull, 26 bones of the vertebral column, and 24 ribs and 1 sternum comprising the thoracic cage. It is acted on by approximately 420 different skeletal muscles. The axial skeleton transmits the weight of the head and the trunk and the upper limbs to the lower limbs at the hip joint. The muscles of the axial skeleton position the head and the spinal column, and move the rib cage so as to make breathing possible. They are also responsible for the minute and complex movements of facial features. Figure 1.4. Frontal view of the human skeleton. The skeleton is composed of 206 bones. it is divided into two parts the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. The numbers in parentheses indicate the number of bones of a certain type (or in a certain subgroup). The names of...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest and most important family of drug targets today. More than 50 of the drugs currently on the market are based on GPCRs and worldwide annual sales reached 47 billion in 2003. The highly remunerative nature of this family of proteins is derived from their importance in many aspects of human physiology. GPCRs have an extremely broad range of mechanisms by which they transduce information through various signaling pathways within cells, but they are also involved in intercellular mechanisms. The activation of GPCRs occurs first through binding of peptides, neurotransmitters, hormones, odors, ions, light, odorants, pheromones, amino acids, amines, nucleotides, nucleosides, prostaglandins, and other small molecular weight compounds. Subsequent G protein activation via GPCRs plays important roles in many types of human maladies such as cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative, neurological, and viral diseases, as well as cancers.
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Germann, W.J. and Stanfield, C.L. (eds.) (2002) Principles of Human Physiology. Pearson Education Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA. Guyton, A.C. and Hall, J.E. (eds.) (2000) Textbook of Medical Physiology,
When a patient arrives at a hospital with an unknown injury, medical staff must rapidly apply their knowledge of human anatomy and physiology to correctly diagnose the problem. 2. Early interest in the human body probably developed as people became concerned about injuries and illnesses. Changes in lifestyle, from hunter-gatherer to farmer to city dweller, were reflected in types of illnesses.
Human anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body and of its various parts. Physiology is the study of the function of those parts. A complete understanding of anatomy requires knowledge of physiology, and a comprehension of physiology, requires knowledge of anatomy. Scientific and medical terminology has been developed to accurately explain the location and relationship of the parts of the body. A thorough understanding of these terms, is necessary for a clear comprehension of the location and function of body parts. If you do not know the exact meaning of these terms, you will be unable to successfully master human anatomy and physiology.
The structural frame of the human body is a tree of bones that are linked together by ligaments in joints called articulations. There are 206 bones in the human body. Bone is a facilitator of movement and protector of the soft tissues of the body. Approximately 700 muscles pull on various parts of the skeleton, using the bones as levers to preserve a certain posture or to produce movement. These muscles are connected to the bones through cable-like structures called tendons or to other muscles by flat connective tissue sheets called aponeuroses. About 40 of the body weight is composed of muscles. Often the various large muscles of the human body produce forces that are multiples of the total body weight. Skeletal muscles contract in response to stimulation from the central nervous system and are capable of generating tension within a few microseconds after activation. A skeletal muscle might be able to shorten as much as 30 during contraction. The condensed outline of human anatomy...
Considerable confusion and controversy surrounds the role of leptin in human physiology generally and pubertal development in particular.78-82 Leptin is a 16-KDa cytokine of the tumor necrosis factor group coded by the ob gene. In rodents, leptin appears to affect hypothalamic centers, regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Deficiency in either leptin (ob mutants) or its receptor (db mutants) leads to hyperphagia and inactivity. Exogenous leptin administration in ob mutants leads to reductions in food intake and increases in energy expenditure.83 In humans, defects in leptin signaling (both leptin deficiency and leptin receptor defects) have also been associated with massive, early onset obesity.84,85 However, administra
It must be compatible with human physiology. For example, pressure wave generation over time must be acceptable to the human body, especially to the neurological system. With the axial flow pump design, diminished pulse pressure must be determined to be physiologically acceptable to the human body over the long term. Likewise, with the levitating axial flow pump design and its ability to generate adequate pulse pressures, pressure generation must be acceptable and thus likely to mimic the human physiological pressure waveform.
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.