Nonprimary HHV6 infection and the respiratory tract

As more than 95 of HHV-6 infections occur during the first two years of life, most HHV-6 infections observed at later ages (especially in teens and adults) are probably reactivations of latent infections or de novo infections with a second virus (Krueger et al., 1998b Ablashi and Krueger, 2003). Non-primary HHV-6 infections of the respiratory tract occur preferentially in immunodeficient patients, yet may occasionally also be seen in not obviously compromised persons. Any conclusion about HHV-6...

Pathophysiology of HHV6 reactivation in DRESS

The mechanism by which HHV-6 is reactivated and participated in the development of DRESS is not yet understood. Many factors are probably implicated in DRESS as recently summarized by Wong and Shear (2004) drug exposure, genetic predisposition, drug interactions, concomitant illness, host immune response with generation of drug-specific T cells, cytokines, transient hypogammaglobulinemia, reactivation of latent viral infection, viral infection, etc. A genetic predisposition is obviously...

Joseph H Brewer

Luke's Hospital and Plaza Infectious Disease, 4320 Wornall Road, Suite 440, Kansas City, MO 64111, USA The potential therapeutic approaches for human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infections include antiviral therapy and immune therapies. Several experimental therapy approaches have possible benefits for such infection based on theoretical grounds as well as clinical studies. These therapies may alter viral infection via immune-mediated mechanisms, which relate to...

DRESS and HHV6 the first reports

Interestingly, all of the clinical and biological manifestations described in the DRESS are observed in some viral infection and especially HHV-6 infection. In 1993, Akashi et al. reported a severe infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome and primary HHV-6 infection in an adult (Akashi et al., 1993). A 43-year-old man was admitted with high fever, generalized exanthe-matic eruption followed by an exfoliative dermatitis, lymphadenopathy, atypical lymphocytes,...

Reactivation transplantation Solid organ transplant

In 1992, Yoshikawa first published that 14 of kidney transplant recipients developed HHV-6 viremia in the first 2-4 weeks posttransplant and 55 showed an increase in anti-HHV-6 antibody titer in the first 3 months (Yoshikawa et al., 1992). Since then, Singh and Carrigan (1996), Singh and Patterson (2000), Ljung-man (2002), and Lautenschlager et al. (2000) have reported HHV-6 as an emerging pathogen in solid organ transplantation. HHV-6 is expressed in the early weeks posttransplant, often...

Proposed pathogenic model of CFS

Human Fatigue Model

One etiologic model of CFS integrates genetic predisposition, immune perturbation, viral reactivation, and autonomic and immunoregulatory dysfunction to produce the symptom complex of CFS (Fig. 1). A persistent viral infection is one potential Fig. 1 Proposed model of chronic fatigue syndrome etiology, including the potential role of Fig. 1 Proposed model of chronic fatigue syndrome etiology, including the potential role of pathogenetic cofactor in this model. Immune activation (due to viral...

Current immunological tools

Although lymphoproliferation (LPA) has remained largely an immunological tool for the research laboratory, there are now a variety of new methodologies that do not require use of radioactive materials or the prolonged incubation times of LPA. These include flow cytometry assays to quantify subsets of circulating cells based on cell surface characteristics, ELISPOT to assess expression of cytokines, and newer cytokine genotype microarray methodologies. Genotype microarray technologies offer...

References

Ablashi D, Agut H, Berneman Z, Campadelli-Fiume G, Carrigan D, Ceccerini-Nelli L, Chandran B, Chou S, Collandre H, Cone R, Dambaught T, Dewhurst S, DiLuca D, Foa-Tomas L, Fleckenstein B, Frenkel N, Gallo R, Gompels U, Hall C, Jones M, Lawrence G, Martin M, Montagnier L, Neipel F, Nicholas J, Pellett P, Razzaque A, Torrelli G, Thomson B, Salahuddin S, Wyatt L, Yamanishi K. Arch Virol 1993 129 363-366. Ablashi DV, Balachandran N, Josephs SF, Hung CL, Krueger GR, Kramarsky B, Sal-ahuddin SZ, Gallo...

Ultrastructure and Assembly of Human Herpesvirus6 HHV6

Ultrastructure Herpesvirus

Stoopsa, Gerhard R.F. Kruegera,b aDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA bDepartment of Anatomy II, The University of Cologne, Cologne 50924, Germany Human herpesvirus-6 HHV-6 is a ubiquitous member of the betaherpesvirus subfamily of the Herpesviridae family. The HHV-6 genome is arranged colinearly and codes for approximately 67 of proteins in common with human...