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figure 4-3 Some of the principal hormones of human puberty reviewed in the text and their regulatory effects on each other and on the principal parameters of physical maturation.

suggested reading

The following sources provide excellent coverage of the physiology of human puberty from a variety of perspectives and can be used to supplement the references cited in the text.

Hormone Research, Vol. 51, Suppl 3 (1999), contains a number of review articles covering the latest research on human puberty emphasizing pathologies and their treatment.

Yen SSC, Jaffe RB, Barbieri RL (eds). Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Saunders, 1999. The latest edition of one of the standard reference works on reproductive physiology. Comprehensive yet accessible, there are excellent chapters on normal puberty and disorders of development.

Knobil E, Neill JD (eds). The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd ed., New York: Raven Press, 1994. The most comprehensive work on reproductive physiology available, with excellent chapters on the HPG axis and its maturation.

Wood JW. Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry, and Demography. New York: Aldine, de Gruyter, 1994. Includes a discussion of human puberty that stresses a demographic perspective.

Ellison PT. On Fertile Ground: Ecology, Evolution, and Human Reproduction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001. Covers the physiology of human reproduction, including puberty, from an evolutionary and ecological perspective and is written for a general audience.

Donovan BT, Van der Werff ten Bosch JJ. Physiology of Puberty. London: Edward Arnold, 1965. A classic work that reviews the important historical experiments that contributed to the modern understanding of the role of the HPG axis in pubertal maturation.


1. Paige KE, Paige JM. The Politics of Reproductive Ritual. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.

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3. Styne DM. Physiology of puberty. Horm Res. 1994;41(Suppl 2):3-6.

4. Apter D. Development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1997;816:9-21.

5. Brook CG. Mechanism of puberty. Horm Res. 1999;51(Suppl 3):52-54.

6. Matsuo H, Babba Y, Nair RMG, Arimura A, Schaly AV. Structure of the porcine LH- and FSH-releasing hormone. I. The proposed amino acid sequence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1971;43:1334-1339.

7. Burgus R, Butcher M, Ling N, Monahan M, Rivier J, Fellows R, et al. Structure moléculaire du facteur hypothalamique (LRF) d'origine ovine contrôlant la sécrétion de l'hormone gonadotrope hypophysaire de lutinisation. CR Acad Sci [Paris]. 1971;273:1611-1613.

8. Krey LC, Butler WR, Knobil E. Surgical disconnection of the medial basal hypothalamus and pituitary function in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinol. 1975;96:1073-1087.

Carmel PW, Araki S, Ferin M. Pituitary stalk portal blood collection in rhesus monkeys: Evidence for pulsatile release of GnRH. Endocrinol. 1976;99:243-248.

Neill JD, Patton JM, Dailey RA, Tsou RC, Tindall GT. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) in pituitary portal blood of rhesus monkeys: Relationship to level of LH release. Endocrinol. 1977;101:430-434.

Plant TM, Krey LC, Moossy J, McCormack JT, Hess DL, Knobil E. The arcuate nucleus and the control of gonadotropin and prolactin secretion in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Endocrinol. 1978;102:52-62.

Belchetz P, Plant TM, Nakai Y, Keogh EJ, Knobil E. Hypophyseal responses to continuous and intermittent delivery of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone. Science. 1978;202:631-633. Wildt L, Hausler A, Marshall G, Hutchinson JS, Plant TM, Belchetz PE, et al. Frequency and amplitude of gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation and gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinol. 1981;109:376-385.

Crowley WF Jr, McArthur J. Stimulation of the normal menstrual cycle in Kallmann's syndrome by pulsatile administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980;51:173-175.

Norman RL, Gliessman P, Lindstrom SA, Hill J, Spies HG. Reinitiation of ovulatory cycles in pituitary stalk-sectioned monkeys: Evidence for a specific hypothalamic message for the pre-ovulatory release of luteinizing hormone. Endocrinol. 1982;111:1874-1882. Hurley DM, Brian R, Outch K, Stockdale J, Fry A, Hackman C, et al. Induction of ovulation and fertility in amenorrheic women by pulsatile low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:1069-1074.

Santoro N, Filicori M, Crowley WF Jr. Hypogonadotropic disorders in men and women: Diagnosis and therapy with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinol Rev. 1986;7:11-23. Knobil E, Plant TM, Wildt L, Belchetz PE, Marchall G. Neuroendocrine control of the rhesus monkey menstrual cycle: Permissive role of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Science. 1980;207:1371-1373.

Knobil E. Patterns of hypophysiotrophic signals and gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Biol Reprod. 1981;24:44-49.

Veldhuis JD, Beitins IZ, Johnson ML, Serabian MA, Dufau ML. Biologically active luteinizing hormone is secreted in episodic pulsations that vary in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984;58:1050-1058.

Hall PF. Testicular steroid synthesis: organization and regulation. In: Knobil E, Neill JD (eds). The Physiology of Reproduction. New York: Raven Press, 1988:975-998. Yen SSC. The human menstrual cycle: Neuroendocrine regulation. In: Yen SSC, Jaffe RB (eds). Reproductive Endocrinology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1991:273-308. Poretsky L, Kalin MF. The gonadotropic function of insulin. Endocrinol Rev. 1987;8:132-141. Adashi EY, Resnick CE, Hurwitz A, Ricciarelli E, Hernandez ER, Roberts CT, et al. Insulin-like growth factors: the ovarian connection. Hum Reprod. 1991;6:1213-1219. Winter JSD, Faiman C, Hobson WC, Prasad AV, Reyes FI. Pituitary-gonadal relations in infancy. I. Patterns of serum gonadotropin concentrations from birth to four years of age in man and chimpanzee. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975;44:1130-1141.

Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM, Aubert ML. The ontogenesis of pituitary hormones and hypotha-lamic factors in the human fetus: Maturation of central nervous system regulation of anterior pituitary function. Recent Progr Horm Res. 1976;32:161-234.

Plant TM. Puberty in primates. In: Knobil E, Neill JD (eds). The Physiology of Reproduction. New York: Raven Press, 1988:1763-1788.

Boyar R, Perlow M, Kapen S, Hellman L, Weitzman ED. Twenty-four hour patterns of luteiniz-ing hormone secretions in normal men with sleep stage recording. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1972;35:73-81.

Boyar RM. Control of the onset of puberty. Ann Rev Med. 1978;29:509-520. August GP, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SJ. Hormonal changes in puberty: III. Correlation of plasma testosterone, LH, FSH, testicular size, and bone age with male pubertal development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1972;34:319-326.

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35. Apter D, Vihko R. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and sex steroids in relation to pubertal and postpubertal development of the menstrual cycle. Prog Reprod Biol Med. 1990;14:58-69.

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37. Apter D, Vihko R. Early menarche, a risk factor for breast cancer, indicates early onset of ovu-latory cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983;57:82-86.

38. Reiter EO, Kulin HE, Hamwood SM. The absence of positive feedback between estrogen and luteinizing hormone in sexually immature girls. Pediatr Res. 1974;8:740-745.

39. Presi J, Horejsi J, Stroufova A, Herzmann J. Sexual maturation in girls and the development of estrogen-induced gonadotropic hormone release. Ann Bio Anim Biochem Biophys. 1976;16:377-383.

40. Levran D, Ben-Shlomo I, Luski A, Ben-Rafael Z, Dor J, Mashiach S, et al. A reappraisal of the feedback effects of oestradiol upon luteinizing hormone surge. Hum Reprod. 1995; 10: 3117-3130.

41. Donovan BT, Van der Werff ten Bosch JJ. Physiology of Puberty. London: Edward Arnold, 1965.

42. Wildt L, Marshall G, Knobil E. Experimental induction of puberty in the infantile female rhesus monkey. Science. 1980;207:1373-1375.

43. Mansfield MJ, Beardsworth DE, Loughlin JS, Crawford JD, Bode HH, Rivier J, et al. Long-term treatment of central precocious puberty with long-acting analogue of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:1286-1290.

44. Lee PA. Central precocious puberty. An overview of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Amer. 1999;28:901-918.

45. Kulin HE, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL. Changing sensitivity of the pubertal gonadal hypotha-lamic feedback mechanism in man. Science. 1969;166:1012-1013.

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50. Siiteri PK. Obesity and peripheral estrogen synthesis. In: Frisch RE (ed). Adipose Tissue and Reproduction. Basel, Switzerland: Karger, 1990:70-84.

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