Solutions To Exercises Lesson

1. Respiration is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the cells of the body. (para 7-1a)

2. External respiration is the exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and blood. (para 7-1a)

3. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the individual cells of the body. (para 7-1a)

4. Breathing is the process that moves air into and out of the lungs. It is a mechanical process. (para 7-1b)

5. In costal breathing, the major structure causing movement of the air is the rib cage. (para 7-1b)

6. In diaphragmatic breathing, air movement is caused by interaction between the diaphragm and the abdominal wall. (para 7-1b)

7. The components of the human respiratory system consist of air passageways and two lungs. Air moves from the outside of the body into tiny sacs in the lungs called alveoli. (para 7-2a)

8. The main subdivisions of the respiratory system may be identified by their relationship to the larynx (voice box). The subdivisions are as follows: supralaryngeal structures, the larynx, and infralaryngeal structures. (para 7-2b)

9. The functions of the supralaryngeal structures are to cleanse, warm, moisten, and test inflowing air. (para 7-2b)

10. The functions of the larynx are to control the volume of the inflowing air and to produce selected pitch (vibration frequency). (para 7-2b)

11. The function of the infralaryngeal structures is to distribute air to the alveoli of the lung. Here, actual external respiration takes place. (para 7-2b)

12. The external nose is supported primarily by cartilages. (para 7-3a)

13. The two nasal chambers are separated by the nasal septum. The walls of the nasal chambers are lined with a membrane known as the mucoperiosteum. Scroll-like extensions, which increase the surface area of the lateral walls, are known as conchae. Sensory endings for the sense of smell are found in the olfactory epithelium. Air "cells" or cavities in the skull are known as paranasal sinuses. (para 7-3b)

14. That portion of the pharynx specifically related to the respiratory system is the nasopharynx. It is the portion of the pharynx above the soft palate. (para 7-3c(1))

15. During swallowing, food is prevented from entering the larynx by the epiglottis. (para 7-3c(2))

16. In the larynx, one set of muscles regulates the volume of air passing through the trachea by controlling the size of the glottis. Another set of muscles produces selected frequencies (variations in pitch) by controlling the tension of the vocal cords. (para 7-4b)

17. The trunk of the respiratory tree is called the trachea. The branches are called the bronchi. (para 7-5a)

18. Alveoli are tiny spherical sacs in the lungs. They are the site of external respiration. (para 7-5b)

19. A lung is an individual organ composed of tubular structures and alveoli bound together by fibrous connective tissue. (para 7-5c)

20. The pleural cavities allow the lungs to move freely with a minimum of friction during the expansion and contraction of breathing. (para 7-5d)

21. In both costal and diaphragmatic breathing, inhalation depends upon an increase in lung volume. The diameters increased in costal breathing are from right to left (transverse) and from front to back (A-P). The diameter increased in diaphragmatic breathing is vertical (depth). (paras 7-7a, 7-8a)

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