Solutions To Exercises Lesson

1. The human digestive system is a group of organs designed to take in foods, initially process foods, digest the foods, and eliminate unused materials of food items. It is a hollow tubular system from one end of the body to the other end. (para 6-1a)

2. Six major organs of the human digestive system are the:

a.

Mouth (oral complex).

b.

Pharynx.

c.

Esophagus.

d.

Stomach.

e.

Small intestines.

f.

Large intestines. (para 6-1b)

3. Seven important structures associated with the oral cavity are the:

a.

Teeth.

b.

Jaws (maxilla and mandible)

c.

Palate.

d.

Lips and cheeks.

e.

Tongue.

f.

Salivary glands.

g.

Taste buds. (para 6-3)

4. The anterior teeth, called incisors and canine teeth, serve as choppers. The posterior teeth, called molars, serve as grinders. (para 6-3a(2))

5. The palate serves as the roof of the mouth and the floor of the nasal chamber. The soft palate serves as a trap door to close off the respiratory passageway during swallowing. (para 6-3c)

6. The tongue aids in chewing and swallowing. (para 6-3e)

7. The pharynx is a common passageway for both the respiratory and digestive systems. (para 6-4)

8. The esophagus serves as a passageway for food from the pharynx to the stomach. (para 6-5)

9. The stomach is a sac-like enlargement of the digestive tract specialized for the storage of food. (para 6-6)

10. The process of digestion is facilitated by special chemicals called digestive enzymes. Most digestion and absorption take place in the small intestines. (paras 6-8a, c)

11. In order after the stomach, the three areas of the small intestines are the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The jejunum and the ileum are attached to the rear wall of the abdomen with a membrane called the mesentery. (para 6-9a)

12. Folds on the inner surfaces of the small intestines are known as plicae. Finger-like projections from these folds are known as villi. (para 6-9c)

13. The digestive function of the liver is to produce a fluid called bije (gall). The common bile duct joins with the duct of the pancreas as the fluid enters the duodenum. (para 6-10)

14. The texture of the pancreas is soft and pliable. Pertaining to location, the pancreas is stretched across the posterior wall of the abdomen. (para 6-11)

15. The primary function of the large intestine is to salvage water and electrolytes. The large intestines remove water until a nearly solid mass is formed before defecation. (para 6-12)

16. In order, the major subdivisions of the large intestines are the cecum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. (para 6-13)

17. The rectum terminates in the narrow anal canal, at the end of which is an opening called the anus. Muscles called anal sphincters aid in the retention of feces until defecation. (para 6-14)

18. Attached to the cecum is a mass of lymphoid tissue called the vermiform appendix. (para 6-16c)

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