Exercises Lesson

REQUIREMENT. The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question.

After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises," at the end of the lesson and check your answers.

1. The four basic components of any circulatory system are a_,

_s, a__, and_s. The vehicle is the substance which actually_.

A conduit is a_through which a vehicle_s. If we say that a force is motive, we mean that it__. Systems providing a motive force are often known as_. Exchange areas exist so that materials being transported may be eventually_.

2. The human cardiovascular system is a collection of interacting

_s designed to supply_and_to living_s and to remove_and other wastes. Its four major components are the_

The conduits are the_. The primary motive force is provided by the_

The exchange areas are provided by minute vessels called_.

3. The major subdivisions of blood are the_and the_

Plasma makes up about_percent of the total blood volume. Plasma is mainly composed of_. Among the most important materials dissolved in plasma are_s. After the blood clots, the clear fluid remaining is_, which does not contain the proteins used for_. Otherwise, it is very similar to_.

4. The formed elements of the blood make up about_percent of the total blood volume. While red blood cells and white blood cells are cells, the platelets are only_of cells.

In a cubic millimeter of normal adult blood, there are about how many RBCs?

RBCs contain a protein called_which transports most of the oxygen carried by the blood.

5. The most common types of white blood cells are_and_

Neutrophils p_foreign particles and organisms. Lymphocytes produce

In a cubic millimeter of normal adult blood, there are about how many

WBCs?

6. The main function of platelets is to aid in clotting by_ing and by releasing c_f_s related to clotting.

In a cubic millimeter of normal blood, there are about how many platelets?

7. Four general functions of blood are: a.

8. The inner, smooth epithelial layer of a blood vessel is called the i_

The middle layer of smooth muscle tissue is called the m_. The outer layer of FCT is the a_.

9. The three types of blood vessels are_,_, and_. The arteries carry blood away from_. The veins carry blood toward the_. Capillaries have extremely thin walls so that exchanges can take place between the_and_.

10. What are the heart chambers? What are the atria?

Each atrium has an ear-like projection known as an _

What are the ventricles? _.

Between the two atria is a common wall known as the Between the two ventricles is a common wall known as the_

11. The three layers in the walls of the heart chambers are the_m, the

_m, and the_m. The inner layer is a smooth e_. The middle layer is made up of cardiac_tissue. The outer layer is another e_.

12. THIN OR THICK? The atrial walls are relatively_. The right ventricular wall is much_er than the atrial walls. The left ventricular wall is three to five times_er than the right ventricular wall.

13. The valve between the atrium and ventricle of each side is the

_(_) valve. The right A-V valve is known as the_valve. The left A-V

valve is known as the_valve. The fibrous cords attached to the underside of the A-V valves are called_. They are attached to the inner walls of the ventricles by_muscles. The valve at the base of the pulmonary trunk and the valve at the base of the aortic arch are both_valves, each with cusps. They are often called the_valve and the_valve.

14. Extrinsic nervous control of the heart is exerted by nerves of the_

nervous system. Speeding the heart up are the_cardiac nerves. Slowing the heart down is the v_p_nerve. Intrinsic "nervous" control is built within the

_. It consists of the s_(_) node, the a_(_) nodes, and the s_b_. For humoral control, there appears to be

_which have varying effects upon the functioning of the heart.

15. The coronary arteries supply "_" blood to the heart walls. The coronary arteries arise from the base of the_and are spread over the surface of the heart. This blood is collected by the_veins, which empty into the right

_of the heart. If a coronary artery becomes closed, the receiving area of the heart will probably_.

16. The pericardium is a special serous sac surrounding the and reducing the_l forces upon its moving surfaces.

17. The human cardiovascular system is closed because at no place is whole blood ever_. It is two-cycle because the blood passes through the heart twice with each complete_. In the pulmonary cycle, the blood passes from the_heart, through the_, and to the

_heart. In the systemic cycle, the blood passes from the_heart, through the

_, and returns to the_heart.

18. In the case of collateral circulation, if one blood vessel to an area is damaged, then_. However, when an end artery is damaged, the receiving area will usually_.

19. PULMONARY CYCLE:

In which chamber of the heart does the pulmonary cycle begin?

Contraction of the wall of the right ventricle forces the_valve to close. This keeps blood from flowing back into the_. The pressure forces blood past the_valve into the_. Upon relaxation of the right ventricle, back pressure of the blood in the pulmonary trunk closes the_valve.

The blood then passes into the_through the pulmonary arterial system. Gases are exchanged between the_of the lungs and the blood in the_next to the alveoli. The oxygenated blood is collected by the_and carried to the

_of the heart. This completes the pulmonary cycle.

20. SYSTEMIC CYCLE:

Oxygenated blood is moved from the left atrium into the_.

Contraction of the wall of the left ventricle closes the_valve, which prevents blood from returning to the_. The pressure forces blood past the

_valve into the_. Upon relaxation of the left ventricular wall, back pressure of the blood in the aortic arch closes the_valve. The blood then passes through the various_to the_. Materials are exchanged between the blood and cells of the body in the_. The blood returns to the

_of the heart in vessels called_.

21. The head is supplied by the_arteries. The neck and upper members are supplied by the_arteries. The aortic arch continues as a large single vessel known as the_. At the lower end of the trunk, the aorta divides into the right and left_arteries, supplying the pelvic region and lower members.

22. Running parallel to the arteries is the system of_veins. Immediately beneath the skin is a network of_veins. These veins collect and then join the deep veins in the_(armpits) and the_(groin). Collecting the blood from the head, neck, and upper members is the superior__. Collecting the blood from the rest of the body is the___. Thus, the final major veins, emptying the returned blood into the right atrium of the heart, are the__.

Except the veins from the head, veins are generally supplied with_s to assist in making blood flow toward the heart. Carrying absorbed substances from the gut to the liver is the_. After being specially treated and conditioned, this blood is returned to the general circulation by the_veins.

23. Located in the interstitial spaces, where they absorb excess interstitial fluid, are the l_s. A tributary system collects this fluid, now called_.

To help maintain lymph flow in one direction, lymphatic vessels are supplied with

_. The major lymph vessel (which passes from the abdomen, up through the thorax, and into the root of the neck) is the_. Lymph nodes are special structures which interrupt_vessels and serve as special f_s for the

_f_passing through. Tonsils are special collections of_d tissue.

They are_ve structures located primarily at the_s of the_y and_e systems.

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