Exercises Lesson

REQUIREMENT. The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question.

After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises," at the end of the lesson and check your answers.

1. The human urogenital systems are made up of the u_

organs, which produce the fluid called_, and the_, or_, organs of male and female humans, which together can produce a new human.

2. The urinary system is specialized to remove certain_from the circulating blood. These result from the body's use of_.

3. The major parts of the human urinary system are two two_, one_, and one_

4. On the concave, medial side of each kidney, there is a notch called the

_. Through this notch pass the_and the_which service the kidney.

5. If we compare the structure of the kidney with that of a cantaloupe, the structure corresponding to the hard rind would be the__.

The structure corresponding to the edible flesh of the melon would be the

_. Corresponding to the hollow center (after removal of the seeds) would be the_. The pyramids of the renal medulla form peaks called

6. The functional unit of the human kidney is the_. Its main subdivisions are the_and a_system.

7. The renal corpuscle is composed of the_and the

__. Blood enters by way of the_arteriole, passes through the tangled mass of capillaries called the_, and leaves by way of the_arteriole. Leaving the blood, fluid is first collected in the double-walled sac called the__.

8. The first coiled portion of the renal tubule is known as the _. The hairpin-shaped portion of the renal tubule is known as the_. The second coiled portion is known as the .

9. The distal convoluted tubules of several nephrons empty into a tubule. The urine is then passed from the collecting tubule at the_of the medullary pyramid. Several collecting tubules are present in each_. There is a hollow sac within the sinus of the kidney called the_. The ureter then drains the urine from the .

10. What are ureters?

What mechanism is used by ureters to move urine?

11. The urinary bladder is a muscular organ for_ing the urine.

The triangular base of the urinary bladder is known as the_. The two posterior corners of the trigone are the points where the_empty into the bladder. The anterior corner of the trigone is the opening of the_. Nerve endings stimulated by the stretching of the bladder walls are known as_.

12. What is the urethra?

At what part of the urinary bladder does the urethra begin?

There is an_urethral sphincter and an_urethral sphincter. The internal urethral sphincter is located in the_of the urinary bladder. It is controlled by nerves of the_nervous system. The external urethral sphincter is more inferior, in the area of the_. It is controlled by nerves of the_nervous system.

13. The female urethra is_and_.

The male urethra is much longer and has two_. The female urethra serves only a_function. The male urethra serves both the_and functions.

14. Since there are different genital systems for males and females, genital systems are an example of_.

15. Primary sex organs produce_cells (_). Primary sex organs also produce_.

What do secondary sex organs do?

Secondary sexual characteristics help to ensure mating by

16. The primary sex organ of the human female is the_.

The ovaries are located to the sides of the upper end of the_.

They are anchored to the posterior surface of the_. The broad ligaments are sheets or folds of_enclosing the_and uterine_and extending to the sides of the_.

The ovary produces the egg cell or_. The ovary produces chemicals called female sex_(_and_). One ovum is released in each_period.

17. Uterine tubes are two muscular tubes which extend to either side of the

_and open at the outer ends. Fringe-like appendages encircle the

_. At their medial ends, the uterine tubes open into the

_. The function of a uterine tube is to_and hold it until (a) it is_OR (b) the nutrient is_and the ovum_.

18. The uterus is the site for all but the first few days of the development of the

_, faces_. It opens into the_. The uterus leans anteriorly with the body slightly curved as the body passes over the top of the

19. The inner lining of the uterus is called the_. The muscular wall of the uterus is called the .

20. The vagina is a tubular canal connecting the_of the_with the outside. The vagina serves as a_and as an organ of_

21. The external genitalia of the human female include the _ _, the_, the_, and the the

22. The mons pubis is a mound of_tissue, covered with_and

23. The labia majora are two folds of_tissue and_which extend back from the_and encircle the_. The outer surfaces are covered with_. The inner surfaces are_and_.

24. The labia minora are two folds of skin lying within the_and also enclosing the_.

25. What is the clitoris?

26. During the first eight weeks of pregnancy, the developing organism is known as a(n)_. Thereafter, the developing organism is known as a(n)

_. At the time of birth, the second delivery is that of the

27. The secondary sexual characteristics of females include growth of _hair, development of_glands, development of the girdle, and deposition of fat in the_and

28. The primary sex organ of the human male is the_. The testes are shaped like_. Their location is within the_. The scrotum is a sac of loose_attached in the_area of the lower abdomen.

How does the scrotum affect the temperature of the spermatozoa?

The testis produces the male sex cells called_. The testis also produces chemicals, or_, called_.

29. The epididymis is a coiled_whose function is to aid in the

_of_. Its lining secretes a_medium for _

As the spermatozoa pass through the nutrient, they

30. The ductus deferens is a_ing tube which carries the from the to the . Each tube enters the abdomen through the_. Each tube passes over a_to reach the back of the and then down to the .

31. Lying alongside each ductus deferens as it crosses the bladder is a tubular structure called the .

32. The prostate gland is a_-size gland that surrounds the first inch of the_as it leaves the_. It provides an additional fluid to be added to the and fluid.

33. The penis is the male organ of_. Passing through the penis is the_. The penis has a central cylinder of erectile tissue called the

_. Each end of this cylinder is_-shaped. The sensitive anterior end is known as the .

What are the corpora cavernosa?

When present, a covering of skin for the glans is called the_or

34. The secondary characteristics of males include growth of _

and_hair; growth of the_to deepen the voice;

and deposition of protein to increase_y and general body size.

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