REQUIREMENT. The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question.
After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises," at the end of the lesson and check your answers.
1. What is respiration?
2. What is external respiration?
3. What is internal respiration?
4. What is breathing?
5. In costal breathing, the major structure causing movement of the air is the
6. In diaphragmatic breathing, air movement is caused by interaction between the and the .
7. The components of the human respiratory system consist of air _and two_. Air moves from the outside of the body into tiny sacs in the lungs called ,
8. The main subdivisions of the respiratory system may be identified by their relationship to the_(v_b_). The subdivisions are as follows: _structures, the_, and structures.
9. The functions of the supralaryngeal structures are to c_, w_, m_, and t_inflowing air.
10. The functions of the larynx are to control the_of the inflowing air and to produce selected_(_).
11. The function of the infralaryngeal structures is to distribute air to the _of the_. Here, actual external respiration takes place.
12. The external nose is supported primarily by
13. The two nasal chambers are separated by the_. The walls of the nasal chambers are lined with a membrane known as the_.
Scroll-like extensions, which increase the surface area of the lateral walls, are known as
_. Sensory endings for the sense of smell are found in the_
epithelium. Air "cells" or cavities in the skull are known as_.
14. That portion of the pharynx specifically related to the respiratory system is the _. It is the portion of the pharynx above the
15. During swallowing, food is prevented from entering the larynx by the
16. In the larynx, one set of muscles regulates the volume of air passing through the trachea by controlling the_. Another set of muscles produces selected frequencies (variations in pitch) by controlling the_.
17. The trunk of the respiratory tree is called the The branches are called the .
18. What are alveoli?
19. A lung is an individual organ composed of_structures and
_bound together by_tissue.
20. The pleural cavities allow the lungs to move freely with a minimum of _during the expansion and contraction of breathing.
21. In both costal and diaphragmatic breathing, inhalation depends upon an increase in lung volume. The diameters increased in costal breathing are from
_and from_. The diameter increased in diaphragmatic breathing is_.
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