Exercises Lesson

REQUIREMENT. The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question.

After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises," at the end of the lesson and check your answers.

1. What is a skeleton?

2. What are four functions of the human skeleton? a. .

3. An individual bone consists of the outer_and the inner

4. The two types of bone marrow are_and_bone marrow.

Yellow bone marrow is mostly yellow_tissue. Red bone marrow is the only site in adults for the formation of_.

5. The parts and portions of an individual long bone are the s_(d_s)

and the_(e_s). The shaft is the_portion of the long bone. The ends are made up mainly of c_(s_) bone tissue. An articular cartilage covers each area where a bone_s another bone.

6. The periosteum is a covering of bone surface area not covered by

_. The innermost layer is the o_(b -f_) layer. The outermost layer is an_layer.

7. In the early fetus, bones are preformed as_s bones and

_e bones which have the shape and location of the_t bones.

Developing long bones have growing masses of actual bone called_centers.

These centers are located in the_and in each_. Preparing material surrounding these centers is destroyed and replaced with_tissue. A

bone grows in width through the activity of the_layer of the_.

8. What are four types of bones according to shape?

9. What is a syndesmosis?

10. What is a suture?

11. What is a synosteosis?

12. What is a synchondrosis?

13. What is a symphysis?

14. What is a synovial joint?

15. What are the major parts of a "typical" synovial joint? a. B .

16. Name and describe three classifications of synovial joints. Along with each, name common subclassifications.

17. Name and define the two major subdivisions of the skeleton.

a. _skeleton--the__of the human body-including the_,_column, and__

b. _skeleton-skeletal elements of the upper and

18. Name and describe the two major parts of a typical vertebra.

a. Vertebral_--_-shape cylinder. Its function is to b._arch--arch over posterior of the_. The arch has several_. The_are sites of attachment of and act as for trunk motions.

19. Name the regions of the vertebral column and give the number of vertebrae in each region.

c. _(low back) region, d. , fusion of e. _("tail"),_-_together.

20. Describe the two ways that vertebrae are held together. a. Intervertebral discs:

b. Ligaments:

21. The thoracic cage consists of the s_(m_, b_, and x_p_), 12 pairs of_, and

12 t_v_. The thoracic cage provides p_for v_o_within the t_. It also allows the m_of breathing.

22. What are the two major subdivisions of the skull and with which organs or systems is each subdivision involved?

b. _: Involved with beginning of _

encases and protects the_

23. In the first column below, name a general segment or part of a member. In the second column, name bones or bone groups which are found in each segment of the upper member. In the third column, name bones or bone groups which are found in each segment of the lower member.

PART UPPER MEMBER LOWER MEMBER

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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