Exercises Lesson

REQUIREMENT. The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question.

After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises," at the end of the lesson and check your answers.

1. Two types of nervous tissues are_and_.

What role does the first play in the nervous system?

What role does the second play?

2. Nervous tissues are specialized to:

b. _information.

c. _information.

3. A neuron is a nerve cell body and all of its_s.

4. A dendrite carries impulses (toward) (away from) the cell body.

6. Each item below indicates the number of poles for a type of neuron. Give the name which corresponds to each.

7. Each item below refers to the thickness of the myelin surrounding an axon. Give the letter indicating the type of neuron.

8. Each item below indicates the route over which impulses are transmitted. Give the type of neuron corresponding to each route.

a. From receptor organs to the CNS: _.

b. From the CNS to muscles and glands: _.

9. What is meant by the term "continuity without contact" as related to neuron "connections"?

10. What is a synapse?

An axon terminates in tiny branches. What is at the end of each branch?

Where is neurotransmitter stored?

What is the presynaptic membrane?

What is the synaptic cleft?

What is the postsynaptic membrane?

11. What is a neuromuscular junction?

Compare the neuromuscular junction to a synapse.

12. The major divisions of the human nervous system are the_

nervous system (_), the_nervous system (_), and the

_nervous system (_). The CNS is made up of the _and the__.

13. The three major subdivisions of the human brain are the. the_, and the_.

What is the brainstem?

14. The cerebellum is a spherical mass of nervous tissue attached to and covering the_. Its three major parts are the_and right and left_hemispheres. In addition, the cerebellum has three pairs of stem-like connecting parts called_. The outer cortex is composed of

_matter, which is the_s of neurons. More central is the

_matter, which is the myelinated processes of_.

The cerebellum is the primary_/_of motor actions of the body.

15. The cerebrum consists of two very much enlarged_s connected to each other by a special structure called the c_c_

Each cerebral hemisphere is connected to the brainstem by a c_p_

The surface of each cerebral hemisphere is subdivided into areas known as l_

16. The space separating the two cerebral hemispheres is called the longitudinal

_. The shallow grooves in the surface of the cerebrum are called_.

The ridges outlined by the grooves are called_.

17. The gray outer layer of each hemisphere is the__

Deeper within the cerebral hemispheres, the tissue is colored_. The "gray matter" represents the__s of the neurons. The "white matter" represents the_.

18. Groups of related functions are associated with specific areas of the cerebral cortex. For example, centers of speech and hearing are located along the lateral

_. Vision is centered in the_lobe. Sensory and motor functions are located along the central_.

19. The ventricles of the brain are interconnected hollow spaces filled with_.

The right and left lateral ventricles are found in the cerebral_s. The lateral ventricles are connected to the third ventricle by the i_f_. The third ventricle is located in the f_. The third and fourth ventricles are connected by the c_a_. The fourth ventricle is located in the h_. The fourth ventricle is continuous with the part of the spinal cord known as the c_c_.

20. The spinal cord, located within the spinal_l, is continuous with the b_. The spinal cord has two enlargements. One, associated with nerves for the upper members, is called the_enlargement. The other, associated with the nerves for the lower members, is called the_

enlargement. Nerves arising from the spinal cord are called_nerves.

There are how many pairs of spinal nerves?

21. In the cross section of the spinal cord, one can see a central region of gray matter shaped like an_. Each arm of this figure is called a_.

The connecting link is called the gray_. These horns are actually sections of the gray_s. Since a column of white matter is a large bundle of processes, it is called a_.

22. The skeletal covering for the brain is provided by bones of the_.

The overall skeletal structure covering the spinal cord is the_column (spine).

23. The brain and spinal cord have three different membranes surrounding them called_. The tough outer covering for the CNS is the_. Beneath it is the_space. The fine second membrane is called the_.

Beneath it is the_space, which is filled with_. The delicate membrane applied directly to the surface of the brain and spinal cord is called the_.

24. The two main pairs of arteries supply oxygenated blood to the brain are the internal_and_arteries. Beneath the brain, branches of these arteries join to form a circle, called the_circle (of_). The main pair of veins carrying blood back toward the heart is the internal_veins.

The blood supply of the spinal cord is by way of a combination of three l_

arteries running along its length and reinforced by s_arteries from the sides.

25. Found in the cavities of the CNS is a clear fluid called_fluid (_).

This fluid is found in the_s of the brain, the sub_space, and the spinal cord's_canal. Special collections of arterial capillaries found in the roofs of the third and fourth ventricles are called choroid_s. These structures continuously produce CSF from the_of the blood.

26. As CSF is produced by the choroid plexuses, it flows into all four_s.

CSF from the lateral ventricles flows into the_ventricle, and then through the

_aqueduct into the_ventricle. By passing through three small holes in the roof of the fourth ventricle, CSF enters the subarachnoid_. From here, the CSF is transported through the arachnoid_into the venous sinuses.

27. The peripheral nervous system is that portion of the nervous system which generally provides commands for_muscles and other_muscles and carries_y information from the p_of the body. A nerve is a collection of neuron_s, together and_the CNS.

28. The 12 pairs of nerves attached to the right and left sides of the brainstem are called_nerves. Each such nerve is identified by a_in order from

_to_and an individual name. Attached to the sides of the spinal cord are 31

pairs of_nerves. For each, the region is designated by a_; within each region, a nerve pair is identified by an_.

29. Like a tree, a typical spinal nerve has_s, a_, and branches (called

_). Coming off of the posterior and anterior sides of the spinal cord are the posterior and anterior_of the spinal nerve. An enlargement on the posterior root is the_. A ganglion is a collection of_, together, outside the CNS. Laterally, the posterior and anterior roots of the spinal nerve join to form the spinal nerve_. The spinal nerve trunk of each spinal nerve is located in the corresponding intervertebral_of the vertebral column. As the nerve trunk emerges laterally, it divides into the anterior and posterior_.

30. If it carries information from the periphery to the CNS, it is an_t

(_) neuron. If it carries information from the CNS to a muscle or gland, it is an

31. An automatic reaction to a stimulus is referred to as a_

The pathway from the receptor organ to the reacting muscle is called the

32. The pathway of a general reflex arc involves a minimum of_structures.

The stimulus is received by a_organ. That information is transmitted to the

CNS by the_t (_) neuron. Within the spinal cord, there is a special neuron connecting the afferent neuron to the efferent neuron; this special connecting neuron is called the_. Carrying the appropriate command from the spinal cord to the reacting muscle is the_t (_) neuron. The reacting muscle is called the e_organ.

33. The autonomic nervous system is that portion of the nervous system generally concerned with commands for s_muscle, c_muscles, and_s.

34. In the ANS, the number of neurons connecting the CNS with a visceral organ is always_. The cell bodies of the second neuron form a collection outside the

CNS, called a_. The first neuron extends from the CNS to the ganglion and is therefore called the_neuron. Cell bodies of the second neurons make up the_. The second neuron's processes extend from the ganglion to the

_. Thus, the second neuron is called the


35. The efferent pathways of the ANS fall into two major divisions. The one most active during a "fight-or-flight" reaction is the_-_outflow (_nervous system). The other is the_-_outflow (_nervous system).

36. The intermediolateral gray columns from the T-1 to the L-2 levels of the spinal cord are made up of the cell bodies of the_-ganglionic sympathetic neurons.

The sympathetic ganglia are made up of the cell bodies of the_-ganglionic sympathetic neurons. The sympathetic NS activates those visceral organs needed to _. It deactivates those which are_.

37. Four pairs of nuclei in the brainstem and the intermediolateral gray columns at the S-2 through S-4 levels of the spinal cord are made up of the cell bodies of the p_p_neurons. The intramural ganglia within the walls of the

_organs are made up of the cell bodies of the p_

p_neurons. As compared to that of the sympathetic NS, the parasympathetic

NS has the (same) (opposite) effect on visceral organs.

38. What is a pathway?

39. What is the neuraxis?

40. What is a sensory pathway?

41. What is a motor pathway?

42. The human nervous system has several levels of control. The lowest level is the___. The highest level is the_level. Between, there are several progressively_levels. All information input and all information output are_d and_d.

43. The right half of the brain controls the_side of the body. The left half of the brain controls the_side of the body.

44. A pyramidal pathway is primarily concerned with_(_)

control of body parts, particularly the_movements of_s. These pathways are called pyramidal because their neuron processes help to make up structures in the base of the brain called_.

45. An extrapyramidal pathway is primarily concerned with (_) control of body parts for purposes of_

46. Name examples of general senses.

47. Name examples of special senses. a. .

48. The general sensory pathway is from the_organ, via the_nerves, to the_. This general pathway then ascends fiber tracts in the_. The pathway ends in the central area of the opposite_hemisphere.

49. The receptors for the sense of smell are special hair cells called c_s.

These are found in the o_e_, high in the n_c_s in the head. The information received is transmitted by way of the o_nerves to the

_y bulbs and then into the opposite_l hemisphere.

50. Describe the sensory receptors for the special sense of taste.

The information received is transmitted to the opposite side of the brain by three_nerves.

51. What is the eyeball?

The eyeball is shaped like a_.

52. The outermost layer of the eyeball is colored_and is made up of very dense_; it is known as the_. Its anterior portion is called the_.

The major focusing device for the eyeball is the_.

53. The middle layer of the wall of the eyeball is known as the_.

This layer is richly supplied with_and pigmented with a_material.

54. The inner layer of the wall of the eyeball is known as the_.

The actual photoreceptor elements are located at the_and the_s.

These elements are the_s and the_s.

55. The elements which register colors are the_. However,_require more intense light than do_. Rods register only_.

56. What are the fovea centralis and macula lutea?

57. What is the blind spot?

58. The thickening of the choroid layer around the edge of the lens is called the _. It includes radial muscle fibers making up the_muscle.

59. Describe the lens and the process of accommodation.

60. The space between the cornea and the iris is called the__

The space between the iris and the lens is called the__. Together, these make up the space between the cornea and the lens, called the__

and filled with the__. This drains into the encircling_, located in the angle between the_and the_. Behind the lens is a jellylike material called the_. It fills the_cavity of the eyeball.

61. The orbit is the cavity in the upper facial skull which contains the and its_. The orbit is shaped roughly like a_.

62. Examples of the adnexa are the: a. _

63. Of the six extrinsic ocular muscles, four are called_muscles. Two are

_muscles. The lateral rectus M. is on the_side of the eyeball. The superior rectus M. is_the eyeball. The medial rectus M. is on the_side of the eyeball. The inferior rectus M. is_the eyeball. The superior oblique and inferior oblique muscles approach the eyeball from the_side.

64. Attached to the margins of the orbit are the upper and lower_.

These have special hairs called_. The inner lining of the eyelids is continuous with the_, a membrane over the anterior surface of the eyeball.

65. In the upper outer corner of the orbit is a lacrimal_d, which secretes a lacrimal_d, which is ultimately collected and delivered into the nasal chamber by the_duct.

66. Neurons carry information from the photoreceptors located in the nervous

_. They leave the eyeball at the_. Passing to the rear of the orbit, the neurons now belong to the_nerve (cranial nerve_). The optic nerve enters the cranial cavity by passing through the_canal. Beneath the brain, the optic nerves from both sides join to form the_, in which half of the neurons from each optic nerve_. From the optic chiasma, the right and left optic_s proceed to the brain proper.

67. The human ear has two major special sensory functions:_

(_y) and_(_e). The three parts of the human ear are the_(_) ear, the_ear, and the_(_) ear.

68. The external flap of the ear is called the_(_). It directs airborne sound waves into the canal called the external auditory_, which extends into the_portion of the skull.

69. Where is the tympanic membrane?

On the medial side of the tympanic membrane, there is a space within the temporal bone called the_.

What are the auditory ossicles?

The auditory ossicles respond to a sound stimulus by_.

From the lateral to the medial ends, the names of the ossicles are: _,

_, and_. The auditory tube connects the middle ear cavity with the

70. What is the bony labyrinth?

It has three_canals, a_(hallway), and a snail-shaped_portion.

What is the membranous labyrinth?

71. Where is the endolymph found?

Where is the perilymph found?

72. The cochlea is a_structure associated with_ing. It has_turns. Its outer boundaries are formed by the snail-shaped portion of the

73. The central column of the cochlea is called the m_. Extending from this central column is a spiral shelf of bone called the s_l_. Connecting this shelf with the outer bony wall is a fibrous membrane called the b_membrane.

This membrane forms the floor of the spiral portion of the membranous labyrinth called the c_d_. This contains a structure with hairs, sensory receptors of hearing;

this structure is called the organ of_.

74. Within the bony cochlea, the space above the cochlear duct is known as the

__and the space below is known as the__.

Between the middle ear cavity and the upper space is an oval window called the fenestra_. Between the middle ear cavity and the lower space is a round window called the fenestra_.

75. A sound stimulus is transferred from the stapes to the fluid_of the

_. In response, the b_membrane of the cochlea vibrates.

The hair cells of the_of_are mechanically stimulated. This stimulation is transferred to the neurons of the_nerve, which passes out of the modiolus into the internal auditory_of the temporal bone. From here, the nerve enters the

_cavity and goes to the_.

76. The two sac-like portions of the membranous labyrinth are the_and the_. They are filled with_. On the wall of each sac is a collection of special hair cells known as the_, which serves as a receptor organ for

_and linear_gravitational forces. The saccular macula and the utricular macula are oriented at more or less_° angles to each other.

77. Extending from and opening into the utriculus are three hollow structures called the_ducts. The utriculus completes the circle for each_. The three ducts are all oriented at_° angles to each other. Where it opens into the utriculus, each semicircular duct ends in an enlargement called an_.

Movement of the fluid endolymph bends the hairs of the_in specific directions. These are responses to_and/or_kinetic gravitational forces.

78. Carrying the information from the maculae and the cristae to the brain is the

_nerve. Contained in the same fibrous sheath from the membranous labyrinth to the brain are the v_and a_nerves.

79. The simplest and lowest level of control is the__. Producing wider reactions to stimuli are s_reflexes. A number of nuclei in the hindbrain monitor and control v_l functions of the body, including r_and h_b . The facilitatory and inhibitory areas of the reticular formation monitor and control general body functions, including_. The thalamus is a primary relay for information going to and from the_and_. One of the most important integrators of motor activity of the body is the_.

80. In humans, the highest level of control is in the_. Here, we can clearly designate three levels of control:

a. The first level is concerned with_activities of the body, as related to_, fear, and other emotions.

b. At the second level, activities of the body are s_d and repetitive in nature. An example is the sequence of muscle actions involved in w_ing.

c. At the third level, brand new solutions can be created. This is the v level.

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