Exercises Lesson

REQUIREMENT. The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question.

After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises," at the end of the lesson and check your answers.

1. Endocrine glands are glands of_l secretion. These glands are also called_less glands. Hormones are the secretions produced by_glands.

Target organs are the specific organs or tissues to which_s are carried by the

_. This is a feedback mechanism because the activity of the target organ affects the activity of the_.

2. The fundamental control "system" is the interaction of_

and_. Genes determine the range of_.

Environment_s it. Controlling the tissues and organs in general are the

_s of the_system. Providing more precise and immediate control of the body structures is the_system.

3. Why are endocrine organs (glands) richly supplied with blood vessels?

4. Name six of the better known endocrine organs.

5. The pituitary body is a small_-sized and_-shaped structure. It is attached to the base of the brain in the region of the h_. In addition, it is housed within a hollow of the bony floor of the_cavity. The pituitary body is actually two glands: the_pituitary gland and the_pituitary gland.

6. The posterior pituitary gland is that portion of the pituitary body which comes from and retains its connection with the_. The hormones of the posterior pituitary gland are actually produced in the h_of the brain. The two recognized hormones of the posterior pituitary gland are_(a hormone) and_. The first is involved with the_of water within the kidneys; it is produced under_conditions. The second is concerned with contractions of smooth muscle in the_and with_production.

7. The anterior pituitary gland originates from the roof of the embryo's

_. It then attaches itself to the_gland. By means of a venous portal system, the anterior pituitary gland is connected to the h_.

Here, certain chemicals known as r_f_are produced. These are carried to the anterior pituitary by the__system. They stimulate the anterior pituitary gland's cells to secrete their specific_. In turn, these hormones stimulate the target organs to produce their own products. This stimulating effect is referred to as_. Two hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland are_trophic hormone and_(_trophic hormone).

The target organs of the first are the_ing structures of the body. The second stimulates the cortex of the_(_) gland to produce its hormones.

8. The thyroid gland is in the_region just below the _and surrounds the_. The masses on either side of the trachea are the right and left thyroid_. The tissue connecting the two lobes is called the_. It is found across the front of the_. Each lobe of the thyroid gland is supplied by the superior and inferior_arteries. The primary hormone of the thyroid gland is_, which affects the___(_), the level of activity of the body.

9. Where are the parathyroid glands located?

The hormone produced by these glands is called_hormone or

. It is involved with metabolism.

10. Within the pancreas are distributed small groups of cells known as_.

The two most commonly recognized hormones of the islets are_and

_. These hormones are involved with_metabolism.

11. The suprarenal glands are embedded in the fat above the_

on each side. Each suprarenal gland has an internal_and an external

_. The inner portion produces a pair of hormones:

e_(_) and n_(_). These are involved in the mobilization of_during the stress reaction ("_or

_"). Each suprarenal cortex produces hormones which can be grouped into three different categories:

a. M_s (for example, aldosterone), which are concerned with the_of the body.

b. G_s (for example, cortisol), which are concerned with many metabolic functions and are anti-_in nature.

c. hormones.

12. In humans, the primary sex organs are known as_s. These organs produce_cells (_) and sex_s.

13. During the first half of the menstrual cycle, the ovaries produce_s.

During the second half, they produce_e. These hormones are concerned with female_y and with the preparation of female sex_s for reproduction.

14. The testes produce the male sex hormones known as_(for example, _). These hormones are concerned with male_.

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