Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage

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textbook human skeleton, articulated samples of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae human skeleton, disarticulated

The vertebral column, consisting of twenty-six bones, extends from the skull to the pelvis and forms the vertical axis of the human skeleton. The column is composed of many vertebrae, which are separated from one another by cartilaginous intervertebral disks and are held together by ligaments.

The thoracic cage surrounds the thoracic and upper abdominal cavities. It includes the ribs, the thoracic vertebrae, the sternum, and the costal cartilages.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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