To the Student

The exercises in this laboratory manual will provide you with opportunities to observe various anatomical parts and to investigate certain physiological phenomena. Such experiences should help you relate specimens, models, microscope slides, and your own body to what you have learned in the lecture and read about in the textbook.

The following list of suggestions may help to make your laboratory activities more effective and profitable.

1. Prepare yourself before attending the laboratory session by reading the assigned exercise and reviewing the related sections of the textbook. It is important to have some understanding of what will be done in the laboratory before you come to class.

2. Bring your laboratory manual and textbook to each laboratory session. These books are closely integrated and will help you complete most of the exercises.

3. Be on time. During the first few minutes of the laboratory meeting, the instructor often will provide verbal instructions. Make special note of any changes in materials to be used or procedures to be followed. Also listen carefully for information concerning special techniques to be used and precautions to be taken.

4. Keep your work area clean and your materials neatly arranged so that you can locate needed items quickly. This will enable you to proceed efficiently and will reduce the chances of making mistakes.

5. Pay particular attention to the purpose of the exercise, which states what you are to accomplish in general terms, and to the learning objectives, which list what you should be able to do as a result of the laboratory experience. Then, before you leave the class, review the objectives and make sure that you can meet them.

6. Precisely follow the directions in the procedure and proceed only when you understand them clearly. Do not improvise procedures unless you have the approval of the laboratory instructor. Ask questions if you do not understand exactly what you are supposed to do and why you are doing it.

7. Handle all laboratory materials with care. These materials often are fragile and expensive to replace. Whenever you have questions about the proper treatment of equipment, ask the instructor.

8. Treat all living specimens humanely and try to minimize any discomfort they might experience.

9. Although at times you might work with a laboratory partner or a small group, try to remain independent when you are making observations, drawing conclusions, and completing the activities in the laboratory reports.

10. Record your observations immediately after making them. In most cases, such data can be entered in spaces provided in the laboratory reports.

11. Read the instructions for each section of the laboratory report before you begin to complete it. Think about the questions before you answer them. Your responses should be based on logical reasoning and phrased in clear and concise language.

12. At the end of each laboratory period, clean your work area and the instruments you have used. Return all materials to their proper places and dispose of wastes, including glassware or microscope slides that have become contaminated with human blood or body fluids, as directed by the laboratory instructor. Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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