1. Review a textbook section on the vertebral column.
2. As a review activity, label figures 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, and 14.4.
3. Examine the vertebral column of the human skeleton and locate the following bones and features. At the same time, locate as many of the corresponding bones and features in your own skeleton as possible.
atlas axis cervical vertebrae thoracic vertebrae lumbar vertebrae intervertebral disks vertebral canal sacrum coccyx cervical curvature thoracic curvature lumbar curvature pelvic curvature intervertebral foramina
I Note the four curvatures of the vertebral column. What functional advantages exist with curvatures for skeletal structure instead of a straight vertebral column?
4. Compare the available samples of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae by noting differences in size, shapes, and by locating the following:
Martin: Human Anatomy I 14. Vertebral Column and I Text I © The McGraw-Hill and Physiology Thoracic Cage Companies, 2002
Figure 14.1 Label the bones and features of the vertebral column.
vertebral foramen laminae spinous process vertebral arch transverse processes facets superior articulating processes inferior articulating processes transverse foramina vertebra prominens (spinous process of seventh cervical vertebra)
dens of axis
5. Examine the sacrum and coccyx. Locate the following features:
superior articulating process dorsal sacral foramen
pelvic (ventral) sacral foramen sacral promontory sacral canal tubercles sacral hiatus coccyx
6. Complete Parts A and B of Laboratory Report 14.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.