1. Review a textbook section on tonicity.
2. To demonstrate the effect of hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions on animal cells, follow these steps:
a. Place three test tubes in a rack and mark them as tube 1, tube 2, and tube 3. (Note: One set of tubes can be used to supply test samples for the entire class.)
b. Using 10 mL graduated cylinders, add 3 mL of distilled water to tube 1; add 3 mL of 0.9% NaCl to tube 2; and add 3 mL of 3.0% NaCl to tube 3.
c. Place three drops of fresh uncoagulated animal blood into each of the tubes and gently mix the blood with the solutions. Wait 5 minutes.
d. Using three separate medicine droppers, remove a drop from each tube and place the drops on
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.