textbook dissectible ear model watch that ticks tuning fork (128 or 256 cps)
rubber hammer cotton meter stick
For Demonstrations: compound microscope prepared microscope slide of cochlea (section) audiometer
The ear is composed of external, middle, and inner parts. The external structures gather sound waves and direct them inward to the tympanic membrane of the middle ear. The parts of the middle ear, in turn, transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane (eardrum) to the inner ear, where the hearing receptors are located. As they are stimulated, these receptors initiate nerve impulses to pass over the vestibulocochlear nerve into the auditory cortex of the brain, where the impulses are interpreted and the sensations of hearing are created.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.