Complete the following statements:
1. Simple squamous epithelial tissue called_forms the inner linings of the tunica interna of blood vessels.
2. The_of an artery wall contains many smooth muscle cells.
3. The_of an artery wall is largely composed of connective tissue.
4. Relaxation of the_in a blood vessel wall results in the vessel being in a condition of vasodilation.
5. The smallest blood vessels are called_.
6. The protective tight arrangement between the capillaries and tissues of the brain is called the blood-brain
7. Precapillary_are composed of smooth muscles that encircle the entrances to capillaries and thus can control the distribution of blood within tissues.
8. The process called_provides the most important means of transfer of biochemicals through capillary walls.
9. Filtration results when substances are forced through capillary walls by_pressure.
10. The presence of plasma proteins in blood increases its_pressure as compared to tissue fluids.
11. Excess tissue fluid is returned to the venous circulation by means of_vessels.
12. _in certain veins close if blood begins to back up in the vein.
1. Sketch and label a section of an arterial wall.
2. Sketch and label a section of a venous wall.
3. Describe the differences you noted in the structures of the arterial and venous walls. Mention each of the three layers of the wall. _
Critical Thinking Application
I Explain the functional significance of the differences you noted in the structures of the arterial and venous walls.
Complete the following:
1. How did you distinguish between arterioles and venules when you observed the vessels in the web of the frog's foot? _
2. How did you recognize capillaries in the web?
3. What differences did you note in the rate of blood flow through the arterioles, capillaries, and venules?
4. Did you observe any evidence of precapillary sphincter activity? Explain your answer.
Pulse Rate and
textbook clock with second hand sphygmomanometer stethoscope 70% alcohol absorbent cotton
pulse pickup transducer or plethysmogram physiological recording apparatus
The surge of blood that enters the arteries each time the ventricles of the heart contract causes the elastic walls of these vessels to swell. Then, as the ventricles relax, the walls recoil. This alternate expanding and recoiling of an arterial wall can be felt as a pulse in vessels that run close to the surface of the body.
The force exerted by the blood pressing against the inner walls of arteries also creates blood pressure. This pressure reaches a maximum during ventricular contraction and then drops to its lowest level while the ventricles are relaxed.
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