Blood Typing

MATERIALS NEEDED

textbook

ABO blood-typing kit

For Demonstration:

microscope slide

70% alcohol sterile absorbent cotton sterile blood lancet toothpicks anti-D serum slide warming box (Rh blood-typing box or Rh view box)

SAFETY

• It is important that students learn and practice correct procedures for handling body fluids. Consider using contaminant-free blood that has been tested and is available from various laboratory supply houses. Some of the procedures might be accomplished as demonstrations only. If student blood is utilized, it is important that students handle only their own blood.

• Use an appropriate disinfectant to wash the laboratory tables before and after the procedures.

• Wear disposable gloves when handling blood samples.

• Clean the end of a finger with 70% alcohol before the puncture is performed.

• The sterile blood lancet should be used only once.

• Dispose of used lancets and blood-contaminated items into an appropriate container (never use the wastebasket).

• Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory.

Blood typing involves identifying protein substances called antigens that are present in red blood cell membranes. Although there are many different antigens associated with human red blood cells, only a few of them are of clinical importance. These include the antigens of the ABO group and those of the Rh group.

To determine which antigens are present, a blood sample is mixed with blood-typing sera that contain known types of antibodies. If a particular antibody contacts a corresponding antigen, a reaction occurs and the red blood cells clump together (agglutination). Thus, if blood cells are mixed with serum containing antibodies that react with antigen A and the cells clump together, antigen A must be present in those cells.

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