Procedure Chypertonic Hypotonic And Isotonic Solutions

Review a textbook section on tonicity. 2. To demonstrate the effect of hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions on animal cells, follow these steps a. Place three test tubes in a rack and mark them as tube 1, tube 2, and tube 3. (Note One set of tubes can be used to supply test samples for the entire class.) b. Using 10 mL graduated cylinders, add 3 mL of distilled water to tube 1 add 3 mL of 0.9 NaCl to tube 2 and add 3 mL of 3.0 NaCl to tube 3. c. Place three drops of fresh uncoagulated...

Optional Activity

T est the effect of Novocain on a frog sciatic nerve. To do this, follow these steps 1. Place a nerve-muscle preparation on a glass plate supported by the ring of a ring stand, as before. 2. Use the electronic stimulator to determine the voltage needed for maximal muscle contraction. 3. Saturate a small piece of filter paper with 2 Novocain solution, and wrap the paper around the midsection of the sciatic nerve. 4. At 2-minute intervals, stimulate the nerve using the voltage needed for maximal...

Materials Needed

Textbook petri dish white paper forceps potassium permanganate crystals millimeter ruler (transparent) molasses (or Karo dark corn syrup) selectively permeable (semipermeable) membrane (presoaked dialysis tubing of 1 5 16 or greater diameter) ring stand and clamp beaker rubber band millimeter ruler For Procedure C Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic Solutions 0.9 NaCl (aqueous solution) 3.0 NaCl (aqueous solution) clean microscope slides coverslips microscope textbook glass funnel filter paper...

Procedure Apaths Of Circulation

Review textbook sections on the pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit. 2. As a review activity, label figure 46.1. 3. Locate the following blood vessels on the available anatomic charts and the human torso superior vena cava inferior vena cava ' 'ijfcffir Why is the left ventricle wall thicker than the right ventricle wall

Learning Objectives

After completing this exercise, you should be able to 1. determine the percentage of red blood cells in a blood sample 2. determine the hemoglobin content of a blood sample 3. describe how a red blood cell count is performed 4. describe how a total white blood cell count is performed. b ecause of the possibility of blood infections being transmitted from one student to another during blood-testing procedures, it is suggested that the following demonstrations be performed by the instructor....

Part C

Name the four regions of the stomach. _ 2. Name the valve that prevents regurgitation of food from the small intestine back into the stomach. _ 3. Name the gastric cells that secrete digestive enzymes. _ 4. Name the gastric cells that secrete hydrochloric acid. _ 5. Name the most important digestive enzyme secreted in the stomach. _ 6. Name a hormone secreted by the stomach that stimulates gastric glands to secrete. _ 7. Name the semifluid paste of food particles and gastric juice. _ 8....

The

Dissectible eye model compound microscope prepared microscope slide of a mammalian eye (sagittal section) sheep or beef eye (fresh or preserved) dissecting tray dissecting instruments forceps, sharp scissors, and dissecting needle Wear disposable gloves when working on the eye dissection. Dispose of tissue remnants and gloves as instructed. Wash the dissecting tray and instruments as instructed. Wash your laboratory table. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. The eye contains...

Demonstration

Labeling Dissecting Microscope

A stereomicroscope (dissecting microscope) (fig. 3.6) is useful for observing the details of relatively large, opaque specimens. Although this type of microscope achieves less magnification than a compound microscope, it has the advantage of producing a three-dimensional image rather than the flat, two-dimensional image of the compound microscope. In addition, the image produced by the stereomicroscope is positioned in the same manner as the specimen, rather than being reversed and inverted as...

Illustrations

Diagrams similar to those in a textbook often are used as aids for reviewing subject matter. Other illustrations provide visual instructions for performing steps in procedures or are used to identify parts of instruments or specimens. Micrographs are included to help students identify microscopic structures or to evaluate student understanding of tissues. In some exercises, the figures include line drawings that are suitable for students to color with colored pencils. This activity may motivate...

Muscle and Nervous Tissues

Compound microscope prepared slides of the following skeletal muscle tissue smooth muscle tissue cardiac muscle tissue nervous tissue (spinal cord smear and or cerebellum) For Optional Activity colored pencils Muscle tissues are characterized by the presence of elongated cells or muscle fibers that can contract. As they shorten, these fibers pull at their attached ends and cause body parts to move. The three types of muscle tissues are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Nervous tissues occur in the...

Part A

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. 1. immovable joint between flat bones of the skull united by a thin layer of connective tissue 2. articular cartilages at joint attached by pad of fibrocartilage 3. temporary joint in which bones are united by bands of hyaline cartilage 4. slightly movable joint in which bones are united by interosseous ligament 5. joint formed by union of cone-shaped bony process in bony socket

Part B

The part of the pharynx superior to the soft palate is called the 2. The middle part of the pharynx is called the _ 3. The inferior portion of the pharynx is called the _ 4. The auditory tube opens through the wall of the _ 5. List six major actions in the swallowing reflex. 6. The esophagus passes through the mediastinum posterior to the_as it descends into 7. _is the main secretion of the esophagus.

Part D

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. activates protein-digesting enzyme trypsin _ 7. stimulates gallbladder to release bile _ 7. stimulates gallbladder to release bile _ 8. stimulates pancreas to secrete fluids high in bicarbonate ions

Preface

This laboratory manual was prepared to be used with any human anatomy and physiology textbook. The major dissection specimen is the fetal pig. The laboratory manual contains sixty-two laboratory exercises and reports. The exercises are planned to illustrate and review anatomical and physiological facts and principles presented in a textbook and to help students investigate some of these ideas in greater detail. Often the laboratory exercises are short or are divided into several separate...

Procedure Astructure And Function Of Organs Of Equilibrium

Review a textbook section on the sense of equilibrium. 2. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 34. o bserve the cross section of the semicircular canal through the ampulla in the microscope set up by the laboratory instructor. Note the crista projecting into the lumen of the membranous labyrinth, which in a living person is filled with endolymph (fig. 34.1). The space between the membranous and osseous labyrinths is normally filled with perilymph.

Procedure

Review a textbook section on connective tissues. 2. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 8. 3. Use a microscope to observe the prepared slides of various connective tissues. As you observe each tissue, look for its special distinguishing features as described in the textbook. 4. Complete Part B of the laboratory report. 5. Test your ability to recognize each of these connective tissues by having a laboratory partner select a slide, cover its label, and focus the microscope on this tissue. Then...

The Cardiac Cycle

Stethoscope 70 alcohol absorbent cotton For Procedure B The Electrocardiogram electrocardiograph (or other instrument for recording an ECG) cot or table 70 alcohol absorbent cotton electrode cream (paste) plate electrodes and cables lead selector switch Virtual Physiology Lab 5, Electrocardiogram A set of atrial contractions, followed by ventricular contractions, constitutes a cardiac cycle. Such a cycle is accompanied by blood pressure changes within the heart chambers, opening and closing of...

Laboratory Reports

A laboratory report to be completed by the student immediately follows each exercise. These reports include various types of review activities, spaces for sketches of microscopic objects, tables for recording observations and experimental results, and questions dealing with the analysis of such data. It is hoped that as a result of these activities, students will develop a better understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of their bodies and will increase their skills in...

Fetal Pic Dissection Cardiovascular System

Preserved fetal pig dissecting tray dissecting instruments twine Wear disposable gloves when working on the fetal pig dissection. Dispose of tissue remnants and gloves as instructed. Wash the dissecting tray and instruments as instructed. Wash your laboratory table. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. In this laboratory exercise, you will dissect the major organs of the cardiovascular system of the fetal pig. As before, while you are examining the organs of the fetal pig, compare...

Procedure F Sustained Contraction

To record a sustained muscle follow these steps a. Set the stimulator for continuous stimulation. b. Set the voltage for maximal muscle contraction as determined in Procedure D. c. Set the frequency of stimulation at a minimum. d. Set the paper speed at about 0.05 cm sec. e. With the paper moving, administer electrical stimulation and slowly increase the frequency of stimulation until the muscle sustains a contraction (tetanic contraction or tetanus). f. Continue to stimulate the muscle at the...

Part E

Name the three portions of the small intestine. 2. Describe the function of the mesentery. _ 3. Name the lymphatic capillary found in an intestinal villus. _ 4. Name five digestive enzymes secreted by the small intestinal mucosa. 5. Name the four portions of the colon. 6. Name the valve that controls movement of material between the small and large intestines. 7. Name the small projection that contains lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum. 8. Summarize the functions of the small intestine. _...

Safety

Wear disposable gloves when working on the fresh or preserved animal lung demonstration. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. The organs of the respiratory system include the nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs. They mainly function to process incoming air and to transport it to and from the atmosphere outside the body and the air sacs of the lungs. In the air sacs, gas exchanges take place between the air and the blood of nearby...

To the Student

The exercises in this laboratory manual will provide you with opportunities to observe various anatomical parts and to investigate certain physiological phenomena. Such experiences should help you relate specimens, models, microscope slides, and your own body to what you have learned in the lecture and read about in the textbook. The following list of suggestions may help to make your laboratory activities more effective and profitable. 1. Prepare yourself before attending the laboratory...

JjS Critical Thinking Application

Have probably concluded that there is some correlation to the length of body parts and height. Often when a skeleton is found it is not complete, especially when paleontologists discover a skeleton. It is occasionally feasible to use the length of a single bone to determine the height of an individual. Observe human skeletons and locate the radius bone in the forearm. Use your observations to identify a mathematical relationship between the length of a radius and height. Formulate an hypothesis...

Procedure Aheart Sounds

Review textbook sections on the cardiac cycle and heart sounds. 2. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 42. 3. Listen to your own heart sounds. To do this, follow these steps a. Obtain a stethoscope, and clean its earpieces and the diaphragm by using cotton moistened with alcohol. b. Fit the earpieces into your ear canals so that the angles are positioned in the forward direction. c. Firmly place the diaphragm (or bell) of the stethoscope on the chest over the apex of the heart (fig. 42.1) and...

Blood Cells

Prepared microscope slides of human blood (Wright's stain) slide staining rack and tray Wright's stain distilled water prepared slides of pathological blood, such as eosinophilia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, and lymphocytosis It is important that students learn and practice correct procedures for handling body fluids. Consider using either mammal blood other than human or contaminant-free blood that has been tested and is available from various laboratory supply houses. Some of the procedures...

Column B

Increases or decreases the light intensity 2. platform that supports a microscope slide 3. concentrates light onto the specimen 4. causes objective lens (or stage) to move upward to downward 5. after light passes through the specimen, it next enters this lens system 6. holds a microscope slide in position 7. contains a lens at the top of the body tube 8. serves as a handle for carrying the microscope 9. part to which the objective lenses are attached 10. circular area seen through the eyepiece

Organs of the Digestive System

Sagittal head section model skull with teeth teeth, sectioned tooth model, sectioned paper cup compound microscope prepared microscope slides of the following parotid gland (salivary gland) esophagus stomach (fundus) pancreas (exocrine portion) small intestine (jejunum) large intestine jfi,Virtual Physiology Lab 8, Digestion of Fat The digestive system includes the organs associated with the alimentary canal and several accessory structures. The alimentary canal, which is a muscular tube,...

Procedure Astructure And Function Of The

Review a textbook section on the sense of hearing. 2. As a review activity, label figures 33.1, 33.2, and 33 3. 3. Examine the dissectible model of the ear and locate the following features tympanic membrane (eardrum) tympanic cavity auditory ossicles malleus incus stapes oval window tensor tympani stapedius auditory tube (Eustachian tube) inner ear osseous labyrinth membranous labyrinth cochlea round window semicircular canals vestibule vestibulocochlear nerve vestibular nerve (balance branch)...

The Use Of Animals In Biology Education

The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) believes that the study of organisms, including nonhuman animals, is essential to the understanding of life on Earth. NABT recommends the prudent and responsible use of animals in the life science classroom. NABT believes that biology teachers should foster a respect for life. Biology teachers also should teach about the interrelationship and interdependency of all things. Classroom experiences that involve nonhuman animals range from...

Blood Testing A Demonstration

Blood Test Test Results Normal Values Red blood cell percentage (mL per 100 mL blood) Hemoglobin content (g per 100 mL blood) Red blood cell count (cells per mm3 blood) Men 4,600,000-6,200,000 Women 4,200,000-5,400,000 White blood cell count (cells per mm3 blood) 1. How does the red blood cell percentage from the demonstration blood test compare with the normal value 2. What conditions might produce a decreased red blood cell percentage 3. What conditions might produce an increased red blood...

Blood Vessels

Compound microscope prepared microscope slides artery cross section vein cross section live frog frog Ringer's solution paper towel rubber bands frog board or heavy cardboard (with a 1-inch hole cut in one corner) dissecting pins thread masking tape Wear disposable gloves when handling the live frogs. Return the frogs to the location indicated after the experiment. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. The blood vessels form a closed system of tubes that carry blood to and from the...

Procedure Bskin Removal

To do this, a. Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray with its dorsal side down. b. Use a sharp scalpel to make short, shallow incisions through the skin as illustrated in figure 24.3. Note that the incisions are different for the male and female in the genital regions. c. Your incisions should encircle the neck, wrists, ankles, and the urogenital regions. Note that more skin is left attached on the male pig in the urogenital region. d. Use a blunt probe...

Lymphatic System

Anatomical chart of the lymphatic system compound microscope prepared microscope slides lymph node section human thymus section human spleen section The lymphatic system is closely associated with the cardiovascular system and includes a network of capillaries and vessels that assist in the circulation of body fluids. These lymphatic capillaries and vessels provide pathways through which excess fluid can be transported away from intercellular spaces within tissues and returned to the...

Procedure A Amylase Activity

Mark three clean test tubes as tubes 1, 2, 3, and prepare the tubes as follows Tube 1 Add 6 mL of amylase solution. Tube 2 Add 6 mL of starch solution. Tube 3 Add 5 mL of starch solution and 1 mL of amylase solution. 2. Shake the tubes well to mix the contents and place them in a warm water bath (37 C 98.6 F) for 3. At the end of the 10 minutes, test the contents of each tube for the presence of starch. To do this, follow these steps a. Place 1 mL of the solution to be tested in a depression of...

Nerve Impulse Stimulation

Textbook live frog dissecting tray dissecting instruments frog Ringer's solution electronic stimulator filter paper glass rod glass plate ring stand and ring microscope slides Bunsen burner ice 2 Novocain solution (procaine hydrochloride) Virtual Physiology Lab 1, Action Potential Wear disposable gloves when handling the frogs and chemicals. Keep loose hair and clothes away from the Bunsen burner. Wear heat-resistant gloves when heating the glass rod. Dispose of gloves, frogs, and chemicals as...

Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb

Vertigo Anatomy

The muscles that move the thigh are attached to the femur and to some part of the pelvic girdle. Those attached anteriorly primarily act to flex the thigh at the hip, whereas those attached posteriorly act to extend, abduct, or rotate the thigh. The muscles that move the leg connect the tibia or fibula to the femur or to the pelvic girdle. They function to flex or extend the leg at the knee. Other muscles, located in the leg, act to move the foot.

Procedure A Lymphatic Pathways

Review a textbook section on lymphatic pathways. 2. As a review activity, label figure 48.1. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 48. 4. Observe the human torso and the anatomical chart of the lymphatic system and locate the following features lymphatic vessels lymph nodes lymphatic trunks lumbar trunk intestinal trunk intercostal trunk bronchomediastinal trunk subclavian trunk jugular trunk collecting ducts thoracic (left lymphatic) duct right lymphatic duct internal jugular veins...

Demonstration Ared Blood Cell Percentage

To determine the percentage of red blood cells in a whole blood sample, the cells must be separated from the liquid plasma. This separation can be rapidly accomplished by placing a tube of blood in a centrifuge. The force created by the spinning motion of the centrifuge causes the cells to be packed into the lower end of the tube. Then the quantities of cells and plasma can be measured, and the percentage of cells (hematocrit or packed cell volume) can be calculated. 1. To determine the...

The Brain and Cranial Nerves

Dissectible model of the human brain preserved human brain Virtual Physiology Lab 2, Synaptic > E T Transmission The brain, the largest and most complex part of the nervous system, contains nerve centers associated with sensory functions and is responsible for sensations and perceptions. It issues motor commands to skeletal muscles and carries on higher mental activities. It also functions to coordinate muscular movements, and it contains centers and nerve pathways necessary for the...

Procedure C Muscle Preparation

Prepare the live frog by pithing so that it will have no feelings or movements when its muscle is removed. To do this, follow these steps a. Hold the frog securely in one hand so that its legs are extended downward. b. Position the frog's head between your thumb and index finger. c. Bend the frog's head forward at an angle of about 90 by pressing on its snout with your index finger (fig. 19.4). d. Use a sharp probe to locate the foramen magnum between the occipital condyles in the midline...

Procedure B Joint Movements

Review a textbook section on types of joint movements. 2. When the body is in anatomical position most joints are extended and or adducted. Skeletal muscle action involves the movable end (insertion) being pulled toward the stationary end (origin). In the limbs, the origin is usually proximal to the insertion in the trunk, the origin is usually medial to the insertion. Use these concepts as reference points as you move joints. Move various parts of your own body to demonstrate the following...

Endocrine System

Textbook human torso compound microscope prepared microscope slides of the following pituitary gland thyroid gland parathyroid gland adrenal gland pancreas water bath equipped with temperature control mechanism set at 37.0 C (98.6 F) laboratory thermometer The endocrine system consists of ductless endocrine glands that act together with parts of the nervous system to help control body activities. The endocrine glands secrete hormones that are transported in body fluids and affect cells...

Skeletal Muscle Structure

Prepared microscope slide of skeletal muscle tissue torso with musculature model of skeletal muscle fiber Wear disposable gloves when handling the fresh beefsteak. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. A skeletal muscle represents an organ of the muscular system and is composed of several kinds of tissues. These tissues include skeletal muscle tissue, nervous tissue, blood, and various connective tissues. Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by connective tissue. The connective tissue...

Of Bone

Prepared microscope slide of ground compact bone human bone specimens including long, short, flat, and irregular types human long bone, sectioned longitudinally fresh animal bones, sectioned longitudinally and fresh chicken bones (radius and ulna from wings) vinegar or dilute hydrochloric acid Wear disposable gloves for handling fresh bones and for the demonstration of a bone soaked in vinegar or dilute hydrochloric acid. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. A bone represents an organ...

Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Recording system (kymograph, Physiograph, etc.) For Demonstration A the Kymograph kymograph recording system electronic stimulator (or inductorium) frog muscles (from pithed frog) probe for pithing dissecting instruments frog Ringer's solution For Demonstration B the Physiograph Physiograph myograph and stand frog muscle (from pithed frog) probe for pithing dissecting instruments frog Ringer's solution Virtual Physiology Lab 3, Frog Muscle ing systems and stimulated by electrical shocks of...

Features Of This Edition

This new edition of the laboratory manual has been made user-friendly. It contains many of the features of other laboratory manuals by the author. Many of the incorporations are a result of evaluations and suggestions from anatomy and physiology students. Numerous suggestions from reviewers have been incorporated. Some features include the following 1. To meet the need for clearer and more definite safety guidelines, a safety list is located inside the front cover and safety sections are found...

Procedure Dsense Of Temperature

Investigate the distribution of heat receptors in your partner's skin. To do this, follow these steps a. Mark a square with 2.5 cm sides on your partner's palm. b. Prepare a grid by dividing the square into smaller squares, 0.5 cm on a side. c. Have your partner rest the marked palm on the table and close his or her eyes. d. Heat a blunt metal probe by placing it in a beaker of hot water (about 40-45 C 104-113 F) for a minute or so. (Be sure the probe does not get so hot that it burns the...

Demonstration B Hemoglobin Content

Although the hemoglobin content of a blood sample can be measured in several ways, a common method uses a hemoglobinometer. This instrument is designed to compare the color of light passing through a he-molyzed blood sample with a standard color. The results of the test are expressed in grams of hemoglobin per 100 mL of blood or in percentage of normal values. 1. To measure the hemoglobin content of a blood a. Obtain a hemoglobinometer and remove the blood chamber from the slot in its side. b....

Acts To Compress The Wall Of The Cheeks When Air Is Blown Out Of The Mouth

Contracts, the corner of the mouth is drawn upward. acts to compress the wall of the cheeks when air is blown out of the mouth. causes the lips to close and pucker. and platysma help to lower the mandible. _ pterygoid can close the jaw and can pull it sideways. _ pterygoid can protrude the jaw, pull the jaw sideways, and open the mouth. _ can close the eye as in blinking. _ can pull the head toward the chest. _ can pull the head to one side, rotate it, or bring it into an upright position. 11....

Fetal Pig Dissection Musculature

Preserved fetal pig (double injection) Wear disposable gloves when working on the fetal pig dissection. Dispose of tissue remnants and gloves as instructed. Wash the dissecting tray and instruments as instructed. Wash your laboratory table. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Although the aim of this exercise is to become more familiar with the human musculature, human cadavers are not always available for dissection. Instead, preserved fetal pigs often are used for dissection...

Network Of Fine Threads Within Nerve Fiber

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. c. chromatophilic substance (Nissl body) 1. sheath of Schwann cell containing cytoplasm and nucleus that encloses myelin 2. corresponds to rough endoplasmic reticulum in other cells 3. network of fine threads within nerve fiber 4. substance of Schwann cell composed of lipoprotein 5. nerve fiber with many tiny, thornlike spines that conducts an impulse toward the cell body 7....

Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

Pineal Gland Activation Exercise

The pelvic girdle includes two coxal bones that articulate with each other anteriorly at the symphysis pubis and with the sacrum posteriorly. Together, the pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccyx comprise the pelvis. The pelvis, in turn, provides support for the trunk of the body and provides attachments for the lower limbs. The bones of the lower limb form the framework of the thigh, leg, and foot. Each limb includes a femur, a patella, a tibia, a fibula, and seven tarsals, five metatarsals, and...

Part BSense of Smell

Record the results (as +, if recognized as 0, if unrecognized) from the tests of odor recognition in the following table 2. Record the results of the olfactory sensory adaptation time in the following table 2. Record the results of the olfactory sensory adaptation time in the following table a. How do you describe your partner's ability to recognize the odors of the substances you tested b. Compare your experimental results with others in the class. Did you find any evidence to indicate that...

Procedure Bsense Of Touch

Investigate the distribution of touch receptors in your laboratory partner's skin. To do this, follow these steps a. Use a marking pen and a millimeter ruler to prepare a square with 2.5 cm on each side on the skin of your partner's inner wrist, near the palm. b. Divide the square into smaller squares with 0.5 cm on a side, producing a small grid. c. Ask your partner to rest the marked wrist on the tabletop and to keep his or her eyes closed throughout the remainder of the experiment. Figure...

The Sensory Receptors Of The Withdrawal Reflex Are Located In

A withdrawal reflex employs a total of _ 2. Interneurons in a withdrawal reflex are located in the 3. A reflex arc begins with the stimulation of a_ 4. Effectors of a reflex arc are glands and_ 5. A knee-jerk reflex employs only_ 6. The effector of the knee-jerk reflex is the 7. The sensory stretch receptors of the knee-jerk reflex are located in the_ 8. The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains the_neurons. 9. The sensory receptors of a withdrawal reflex...

Blood Typing

Slide warming box (Rh blood-typing box or Rh view box) It is important that students learn and practice correct procedures for handling body fluids. Consider using contaminant-free blood that has been tested and is available from various laboratory supply houses. Some of the procedures might be accomplished as demonstrations only. If student blood is utilized, it is important that students handle only their own blood. Use an appropriate disinfectant to wash the laboratory tables before and...

Procedure Atypes Of Joints

Review a textbook section on classification of joints. 2. Examine the human skull and articulated skeleton to locate examples of the following types of joints syndesmosis suture gomphosis cartilaginous joints synchondrosis symphysis synovial joints 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 17. 4. Locate examples of the following types of synovial joints in the skeleton. At the same time, examine the corresponding joints in the models and in your own skeleton. Experiment with each joint to...

Procedure Ctwopoint Threshold

Test your partner's ability to recognize the difference between one or two points of skin being stimulated simultaneously. To do this, follow these steps a. Have your partner place a hand with the palm up on the table and close his or her eyes. b. Hold the tips of a forceps tightly together and gently touch the skin of your partner's index finger. c. Ask your partner to report if it feels like one or two points are touching the finger. d. Allow the tips of the forceps to spread so they are 1 mm...

Procedure Cthe Stomach

Dips Procedure Liver

Review a textbook section on the stomach. 2. As a review activity, label figures 49.6 and 49 7. 3. Observe the torso, and locate the following features of the stomach cardiac region fundic region body region pyloric region pyloric canal pyloric sphincter (valve) lesser curvature greater curvature 4. Examine a microscopic section of stomach wall, using low-power magnification. Note how the inner lining of simple columnar epithelium dips inward to form gastric pits. The gastric glands are tubular...

Consists Of Several Layers Of Cube Shaped And Elongated Cells

Consists of several layers of cube-shaped and elongated cells 2. commonly possesses cilia that move sex cells and mucus 3. single layer of flattened cells 4. nuclei located at different levels within cells 5. forms walls of capillaries and air sacs of lungs 6. forms linings of respiratory passages 7. younger cells cuboidal, older cells flattened 8. forms inner lining of urinary bladder 9. lines kidney tubules and ducts of salivary glands 10. forms lining of stomach and intestines 11. nuclei...

Provides Stored Energy Supply In Fat Vacuoles

Forms framework of outer ear 2. functions as heat insulator beneath skin 3. contains large amounts of fluid and lacks fibers 4. cells arranged around osteonic canal 5. binds skin to underlying organs 6. main tissue of tendons and ligaments 7. provides stored energy supply in fat vacuoles 8. forms the flexible part of the nasal septum 9. pads between vertebrae that are shock absorbers 10. forms supporting rings of respiratory passages 11. cells greatly enlarged with nuclei pushed to sides 12....

Critical Thinking Application

Monitor Lizard Dissection

Identify the muscles indicated in figure 23.7. Figure 23.7 Identify the muscles that appear as lower limb surface features in these photographs (a and b). Figure 23.7 Identify the muscles that appear as lower limb surface features in these photographs (a and b). (a) Left thigh, anterior view (b) Right lower limb, medial view (a) Left thigh, anterior view (b) Right lower limb, medial view

Additive Phenomenon Called

Ions tend to pass through cell membranes more easily than sodium ions. 2. When a nerve cell is at rest, there is a relatively greater concentration of 3. When sodium ions are actively transported outward through a nerve cell membrane,_ 4. The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of a nerve cell membrane is called the _potential. 5. As a result of an additive phenomenon called_, the threshold potential of a membrane 6. An action potential is a rapid sequence of...

Basilar Membrane

Vestibular System Diagram

O bserve the section of the cochlea in the microscope set up by the laboratory instructor. Locate one of the turns of the cochlea, and using figures 33.3 and 33.4 as a guide, identify the scala vestibuli, cochlear duct, scala tympani, vestibular membrane, basilar membrane, and the organ of Corti. Figure 33.1 Label the major stuctures of the ear. Figure 33.2 Label the structures of the inner ear by placing the correct numbers in the spaces provided. canals Figure 33.2 Label the structures of the...

Procedure Adiffusion

Review a textbook section on diffusion. 2. To demonstrate diffusion, follow these steps a. Place a petri dish half filled with water on a piece of white paper that has a millimeter ruler positioned on the paper. Wait until the water surface is still. Allow approximately 3 minutes. b. Using forceps, place one crystal of potassium permanganate near the center of the petri dish and near the millimeter ruler (fig. 5.1). c. Measure the radius of the purple circle at 1-minute intervals for 10...

Procedure Imuscles Of The Hip And Hindlimb

Human Tensor Fascia Latae

Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray with its ventral side up. 2. Remove any remaining fat and connective tissue from the hip and hindlimb to expose the muscles. 3. Study figure 24.9, and then locate and dissect the following muscles from the medial surface of the thigh 4. Using scissors, transect the sartorius and gracilis, and lift aside their cut edges to observe the deeper muscles of the thigh. 5. Study figure 24.9, and then locate and dissect the following muscles 6. Transect the...

Procedure Bosmosis

Selectively Semipermeable Membrane

Review a textbook section on osmosis. 2. To demonstrate osmosis, refer to figure 5.2 as you a. One person plugs the tube end of a thistle tube with a finger. b. Another person then fills the bulb with molasses until it is about to overflow at the top of the bulb. Note that air remains trapped in the stem. c. Cover the bulb opening with a single-thickness piece of moist selectively permeable (semipermeable) membrane. Dialysis tubing that has been soaked for 30 minutes can easily be cut open...

Procedure A Respiratory Organs

Where Your Epiglottis

Review a textbook section on organs of the respiratory system. 2. As a review activity, label figures 52.1, 52.2, 52.3, and 52.4. 3. Examine the sagittal section of the human skull, and locate the following features nostrils (external nares) nasal cavity nasal septum nasal conchae superior meatus middle meatus inferior meatus sinuses maxillary sinus frontal sinus ethmoidal sinus sphenoidal sinus 4. Observe the larynx model, the thoracic organs model, and the human torso. Locate the features...

Corpora Quadrigemina Sheep Brain

Infundibulum Pitutiary Gland

Obtain a preserved sheep brain and rinse it thoroughly in water to remove as much of the preserving fluid as possible. 2. Examine the surface of the brain for the presence of meninges. The outermost layers of these membranes may have been lost during removal of the brain from the cranial cavity. If meninges are present, locate the following dura mater the thick, opaque outer layer arachnoid mater the delicate, transparent middle layer that is attached to the undersurface of the dura mater pia...

Label This Arteriole By Placing The Correct Numbers In The Spaces Provided

Correct Wrapping For Aseptic Procedures

Review a textbook section on blood vessels. 2. As a review activity, label figures 44.1 and 44.2. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 44. 4. Obtain a microscope slide of an artery cross section and examine it using low-power and high-power magnification. Identify the three distinct layers tunics of the arterial wall. The inner layer tunica interna , is composed of an endothelium simple squamous epithelium and appears as a wavy line due to an abundance of elastic fibers that have recoiled...

Part ASomatic Receptors

1. _are receptors that are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of chemicals. 2. Whenever tissues are damaged,_receptors are likely to be stimulated. 3. Receptors that are sensitive to temperature changes are called_. 4. _are sensitive to changes in pressure or to movement of fluid. 5. _are sensitive to changes in the intensity of light energy. 6. A sensation may seem to fade away when receptors are continuously stimulated as a result of _adaptation. 7. Meissner s corpuscles are...

The Skull

Human skull, disarticulated Beauchene A human skull consists of twenty-two bones that, except for the lower jaw, are firmly interlocked along sutures. Eight of these immovable bones make up the braincase, or cranium, and thirteen more immovable bones and the mandible form the facial skeleton.

Study Skills For Anatomy And Physiology

My students have found that certain study skills worked well for them while enrolled in Human Anatomy and Physiology. Although each individual has a somewhat different learning style, there are techniques that work well for the majority of students. Utilizing some of the skills listed here could make your course more enjoyable and rewarding. 1. Note taking Look for the main ideas and briefly express them in your own words. Organize, edit, and review your notes soon after the lecture. Add...

Minimal Intensity Of Stimulation Necessary To Trigger A Muscle Contraction

Match the terms in column A with the definitions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. g. tetanic contraction tetanus 1. minimal intensity of stimulation necessary to trigger a muscle contraction 2. response of a muscle fiber motor unit complete contraction if stimulated sufficiently 3. consists of a single motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers with which the neuron is associated 4. an action of a muscle contraction and immediate relaxation when exposed to a...

Part BSense of Touch

Record a to indicate where the bristle was felt and a 0 to indicate where it was not felt. 2. Show distribution of touch receptors in two other regions of skin. a. How do you describe the pattern of distribution for touch receptors in the regions of the skin you tested b. How does the concentration of touch receptors seem to vary from region to region

Membranous Channel Extending Inward From Muscle Fiber Membrane

Match the terms in column A with the Column A i. sarcolemma j. sarcomere k. sarcoplasm definitions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. 1. membranous channel extending inward from muscle fiber membrane 3. network of connective tissue that extends throughout the muscular system 4. layer of connective tissue that separates a muscle into small bundles called fascicles 5. enlarged portion of sarcoplasmic reticulum on either side of a transverse tubule 6. broad sheet...

Reviewers

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all reviewers of the laboratory manual who provided suggestions for its improvement. Their thoughtful comments and valuable suggestions are greatly appreciated. They include the following John C. Conroy University of Winnipeg Leslie Nesbitt Curtin Niagara University Michael A. Palladino Monmouth University North Shore Community College Nikki Privacky Linn-Benton Community College Louis Wigginton St. Clair County Community College Arlene Wolff

Procedure Cthymus And Spleen

Human Spleen Diagram

Review a textbook section on the thymus and spleen. 2. Locate the thymus and spleen in the anatomical chart of the lymphatic system and on the human torso. 3. Complete Part C of the laboratory report. 4. Obtain a prepared microscope slide of human thymus and observe it using low-power magnification fig. 48.3 . Note how the thymus is subdivided into lobules by septa of connective tissue that contain blood vessels. Identify the capsule of loose connective tissue that surrounds the thymus, the...

Procedure Brespiratory Air Volumes And Capacities

Human Anatomy Volumes

Review a textbook section on respiratory volumes and capacities. 2. Complete Part B of the laboratory report. 3. Obtain a handheld spirometer. Note that the needle can be set at zero by rotating the adjustable dial. Before using the instrument, clean it with cotton moistened with 70 alcohol and place a new disposable mouthpiece over its stem. The instrument should be held with the dial upward and air should be blown into the disposable mouthpiece. Movement of the needle indicates the air...

Part CTwo Point Threshold

Record the two-point threshold in millimeters for skin in each of the following regions 2. Answer the following questions a. What region of the skin tested has the greatest ability to discriminate two points _ b. What region of the skin has the least sensitivity to this test c. What is the significance of these observations in questions a and b _

Procedure Bdifferential White Blood Cell Count

Normal Differental Blood Slide

A differential white blood cell count is performed to determine the percentage of each of the various types of white blood cells present in a blood sample. The test is useful because the relative proportions of white blood cells may change in particular diseases. Neutrophils, for example, usually increase during bacterial infections, whereas eosinophils may increase during certain parasitic infections and allergic reactions. 1. To make a differential white blood cell count, follow these steps...

The Reflex Arc and Reflexes

A reflex arc represents the simplest type of nerve pathway found in the nervous system. This pathway begins with a receptor at the end of a sensory nerve fiber. The sensory fiber leads into the central nervous system and may communicate with one or more interneurons. Some of these interneurons, in turn, communicate with motor neurons, whose fibers lead outward to effectors. Thus, when a sensory receptor is stimulated by some kind of change occurring inside or outside the body, nerve impulses...

Length of upper limbHeight actual of height

A graph is an excellent method to obtain a visual representation of the data. Plot the subjects' data in Part A of the laboratory report. Plot the upper limb length of each subject on the x-axis and the height of each person on the y-axis. A line is already located on the graph that represents a hypothetical relationship of 0.4 40 upper limb length compared to height. This is a graphic representation of the original hypothesis. 6. Compare the distribution of all of the points actual height...

Organization of the Skeleton

The extra bones that sometimes develop between the flat bones of the skull are called _ 2. Small bones occurring in some tendons are called_bones. 3. The cranium and facial bones compose the _ 4. The_bone supports the tongue. 5. The_at the inferior end of the sacrum is composed of several fused vertebrae. 6. Most ribs are attached anteriorly to the _ 7. The thoracic cage is composed of_ 8. The scapulae and clavicles together form the 10. The wrist is composed of eight bones called _ 11. The...

Demonstrationblood Slide Preparation

To prepare a stained blood slide, follow these steps 1. Clean two microscope slides with a cleaning agent such as borax and water, and thereafter avoid touching their flat surfaces. 2. Thoroughly wash hands with soap and water and dry them with paper towels. 3. Cleanse the end of the middle finger with some sterile cotton moistened with 70 alcohol and let the finger dry in the air. 4. Remove a sterile disposable blood lancet from its package without touching the sharp end. 5. Puncture the skin...

What Happens When The Sheeting Is Pushed Upward

O bserve the mechanical lung function model. Note that it consists of a heavy glass bell jar with a rubber sheeting tied over its wide open end. Its narrow upper opening is plugged with a rubber stopper through which a glass Y tube is passed. Small rubber balloons are fastened to the arms of the Y fig. 54.1 . What happens to the balloons when the rubber sheeting is pulled downward What happens when the sheeting is pushed upward What part of the respiratory system is represented by

The Joints

Models of synovial joints shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee fresh animal joint knee joint preferred radiographs of major joints Wear disposable gloves when handling the fresh animal joint. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Joints are junctions between bones. Although they vary considerably in structure, they can be classified according to the type of tissue that binds the bones together. Thus, the three groups of joints can be identified as 1 fibrous joints, 2 cartilaginous joints,...

Procedure A The Human Heart

Heart Labeled Brachocephalic

Review a textbook section on the structure of the heart. 2. As a review activity, label figures 41.1, 41.2, and 41.3. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 41. 4. Examine the human heart model and locate the following features fibrous pericardium outer layer parietal pericardium inner lining pericardial cavity epicardium visceral pericardium myocardium endocardium atria right ventricle left ventricle atrioventricular orifices atrioventricular valves A-V valves tricuspid valve bicuspid...

Draw And Label Olfactory Organ

Identify And Label Cilia And Microvilli

O bserve the olfactory epithelium in the microscope set up by the laboratory instructor. The olfactory receptor cells are spindle-shaped, bipolar neurons with spherical nuclei. They also have six to eight cilia at their distal ends. The supporting cells are pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells. However, in this region the tissue lacks goblet cells. See fig. 32.2. Figure 32.1 Label this diagram of the olfactory organ by placing the correct numbers in the spaces provided. Figure 32.1 Label...

Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

Human skeleton, articulated human skeleton, disarticulated The pectoral girdle consists of two clavicles and two scapulae. These parts function to support the upper limbs and to serve as attachments for various muscles that move these limbs. Each upper limb includes a humerus, radius, ulna, and several carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. These bones form the framework of the arm, forearm, and hand. They also function as parts of levers when the limbs are moved.

Structure of the Heart

Dissectible human heart model preserved sheep or other mammalian heart dissecting tray dissecting instruments Wear disposable gloves when working on the heart dissection. Save or dispose of the dissected heart as instructed. Wash the dissecting tray and instruments as instructed. Wash your laboratory table. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. The heart is a muscular pump located within the mediastinum and resting upon the diaphragm. It is enclosed by the lungs, thoracic vertebrae,...

Procedure Avisual Tests

Perform the following visual tests using your laboratory partner as a test subject. If your partner usually wears glasses, test each eye with and without the glasses. 1. Visual acuity test. Visual acuity sharpness of vision can be measured by using a Snellen eye chart fig. 36.1 . This chart consists of several sets of letters in different sizes printed on a white card. The letters near the top of the chart are relatively large, and those in each lower set become smaller. At one end of each set...

Visual Tests and Demonstrations

Snellen eye chart 3 x 5 card plain 3 x 5 card with word typed in center Ichikawa's or Ishihara's color plates for color-blindness test Normal vision emmetropia results when light rays from objects in the external environment are refracted by the cornea and lens of the eye and focused onto the photoreceptors of the retina. Irregular curvatures in the surface of the cornea or lens, inability to change the shape of the lens, or defects in the shape of the eyeball can result in defective vision.

Procedure Blymph Nodes

Thoracic Node Pics

Review a textbook section on lymph nodes. 2. As a review activity, label figure 48.2. 3. Complete Part B of the laboratory report. 4. Observe the anatomical chart of the lymphatic system and the human torso, and locate the clusters of lymph nodes in the following regions Figure 48.1 Label the diagram by placing the correct numbers in the spaces provided. Figure 48.1 Label the diagram by placing the correct numbers in the spaces provided. Jugular vein Lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels Right...

Blood Pressure

Anatomy Antecubital Space

Examine your laboratory partner's radial pulse. To a. Have your partner sit quietly, remaining as relaxed as possible. b. Locate the pulse by placing your index and middle fingers over the radial artery on the anterior surface of the wrist. Do not use your thumb for sensing the pulse, because you may feel a pulse coming from an artery in the thumb itself. c. Note the characteristics of the pulse. That is, could it be described as regular or irregular, strong or weak, hard or soft d. To...

Name The Muscle Indicated By The Following Combinations Of Origin And Insertion

Name the muscle indicated by the Origin 5. anterior surface of sternum and upper clavicle 6. outer surfaces of mandible and maxilla 10. processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae following combinations of origin and insertion. Insertion anterior surface of mandibular condyle lower border of mandible and skin around corner of mouth coronoid process and anterior ramus of mandible mastoid process of temporal bone and occipital bone

Demonstration Rh Blood Typing

Blood Cranium

Review a textbook section on the Rh Blood Group. 2. Complete Part C of the laboratory report. Table 40.1 Possible Reactions of ABO Blood-Typing Sera 3. To determine the Rh blood type of a blood sample, a. Lance the tip of a finger. See the demonstration procedures in Laboratory Exercise 38 for directions. Place a small drop of blood in the center of a clean microscope slide. b. Add a drop of anti-D serum to the blood and mix them together with a clean toothpick. c. Place the slide on the...

Bonelike Substance Beneath Tooth Enamel

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. Column A Column B bonelike substance beneath tooth enamel cone-shaped projection of soft palate secretes the digestive enzymes in saliva space between the teeth, cheeks, and lips lymphatic tissue in posterior wall of pharynx near auditory tubes portion of tooth projecting beyond gum

Procedure Dfiltration

Benedicts Blue Solution

Review a textbook section on filtration. 2. To demonstrate filtration, follow these steps a. Place a glass funnel in the ring of a ring stand over an empty beaker. Fold a piece of filter paper in half and then in half again. Open one thickness of the filter paper to form a cone, wet the cone, and place it in the funnel. The filter paper is used to demonstrate how movement across membranes is limited by the size of the molecules, but it does not represent a working model of biological...