Features Of This Edition

This new edition of the laboratory manual has been made user-friendly. It contains many of the features of other laboratory manuals by the author. Many of the incorporations are a result of evaluations and suggestions from anatomy and physiology students. Numerous suggestions from reviewers have been incorporated. Some features include the following 1. To meet the need for clearer and more definite safety guidelines, a safety list is located inside the front cover and safety sections are found...

Materials Needed

Variety of specimens or models sectioned along various planes The major features of the human body include certain cavities, a set of membranes associated with these cavities, and a group of organ systems composed of related organs. In order to communicate effectively with each other about the body, scientists have devised names to describe these body features. They also have developed terms to represent the relative positions of body parts, imaginary planes passing through these parts, and...

Learning Objectives

After completing this exercise, you should be able to 1. make use of a recording system and stimulator to record frog muscle responses to electrical stimulation 2. determine the threshold level of electrical stimulation in frog muscle 3. determine the intensity of stimulation needed for maximal muscle contraction 4. record a single muscle twitch and identify its phases 5. record the response of a muscle to increasing frequency of stimulation, and identify the patterns of tetanic contraction and...

Procedure Dsense Of Temperature

Investigate the distribution of heat receptors in your partner's skin. To do this, follow these steps a. Mark a square with 2.5 cm sides on your partner's palm. b. Prepare a grid by dividing the square into smaller squares, 0.5 cm on a side. c. Have your partner rest the marked palm on the table and close his or her eyes. d. Heat a blunt metal probe by placing it in a beaker of hot water (about 40-45 C 104-113 F) for a minute or so. (Be sure the probe does not get so hot that it burns the...

Demonstration

Labeled Features Larynx

E xamine the prepared microscope slides of the lung tissue of a smoker and a person with emphysema using low-power magnification. How does the smoker's lung tissue compare with that of the normal lung tissue that How does the emphysema patient's lung tissue compare with the normal lung tissue _ Figure 52.3 Label the major features of the larynx (a) anterior view (b) posterior view. Figure 52.4 Label the features of the superior aspect of the larynx with the glottis closed. Figure 52.4 Label the...

Demonstration B Hemoglobin Content

Although the hemoglobin content of a blood sample can be measured in several ways, a common method uses a hemoglobinometer. This instrument is designed to compare the color of light passing through a he-molyzed blood sample with a standard color. The results of the test are expressed in grams of hemoglobin per 100 mL of blood or in percentage of normal values. 1. To measure the hemoglobin content of a blood a. Obtain a hemoglobinometer and remove the blood chamber from the slot in its side. b....

Part A

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. Column A Column B potential space between visceral and parietal pleurae serves as resonant chamber and reduces weight of skull microscopic air sacs for gas exchange fold of mucous membrane containing elastic fibers responsible for _ 8. increases surface area of nasal mucous membrane _ 10. partially covers opening of larynx during swallowing

Acts To Compress The Wall Of The Cheeks When Air Is Blown Out Of The Mouth

Contracts, the corner of the mouth is drawn upward. acts to compress the wall of the cheeks when air is blown out of the mouth. causes the lips to close and pucker. and platysma help to lower the mandible. _ pterygoid can close the jaw and can pull it sideways. _ pterygoid can protrude the jaw, pull the jaw sideways, and open the mouth. _ can close the eye as in blinking. _ can pull the head toward the chest. _ can pull the head to one side, rotate it, or bring it into an upright position. 11....

Part C

Sketch a single cell of each kind you observed in the prepared slides of human tissues. Name the tissue and label the cellular components you recognize. 2. What do the various kinds of cells in these tissues have in common _ 3. What are the main differences you observed among these cells

Fetal Pig Dissection Musculature

Preserved fetal pig (double injection) Wear disposable gloves when working on the fetal pig dissection. Dispose of tissue remnants and gloves as instructed. Wash the dissecting tray and instruments as instructed. Wash your laboratory table. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Although the aim of this exercise is to become more familiar with the human musculature, human cadavers are not always available for dissection. Instead, preserved fetal pigs often are used for dissection...

Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

Pineal Gland Activation Exercise

The pelvic girdle includes two coxal bones that articulate with each other anteriorly at the symphysis pubis and with the sacrum posteriorly. Together, the pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccyx comprise the pelvis. The pelvis, in turn, provides support for the trunk of the body and provides attachments for the lower limbs. The bones of the lower limb form the framework of the thigh, leg, and foot. Each limb includes a femur, a patella, a tibia, a fibula, and seven tarsals, five metatarsals, and...

Blood Testing A Demonstration

Sterile disposable blood lancets sterile absorbent cotton 70 alcohol heparinized microhematocrit capillary tube sealing clay (or Critocaps) microhematocrit centrifuge microhematocrit reader hemoglobinometer lens paper hemolysis applicator Unopette system (a Becton Dickinson product) for counting red blood cells (see Instructor's Manual for a supplier) hand counter (tally) Unopette system (a Becton Dickinson product) for counting white blood cells (see Instructor's Manual for a supplier) hand...

Part BSense of Smell

Record the results (as +, if recognized as 0, if unrecognized) from the tests of odor recognition in the following table 2. Record the results of the olfactory sensory adaptation time in the following table 2. Record the results of the olfactory sensory adaptation time in the following table a. How do you describe your partner's ability to recognize the odors of the substances you tested b. Compare your experimental results with others in the class. Did you find any evidence to indicate that...

Procedure Bsense Of Touch

Investigate the distribution of touch receptors in your laboratory partner's skin. To do this, follow these steps a. Use a marking pen and a millimeter ruler to prepare a square with 2.5 cm on each side on the skin of your partner's inner wrist, near the palm. b. Divide the square into smaller squares with 0.5 cm on a side, producing a small grid. c. Ask your partner to rest the marked wrist on the tabletop and to keep his or her eyes closed throughout the remainder of the experiment. Figure...

Blood Typing

Slide warming box (Rh blood-typing box or Rh view box) It is important that students learn and practice correct procedures for handling body fluids. Consider using contaminant-free blood that has been tested and is available from various laboratory supply houses. Some of the procedures might be accomplished as demonstrations only. If student blood is utilized, it is important that students handle only their own blood. Use an appropriate disinfectant to wash the laboratory tables before and...

Procedure Atypes Of Joints

Review a textbook section on classification of joints. 2. Examine the human skull and articulated skeleton to locate examples of the following types of joints syndesmosis suture gomphosis cartilaginous joints synchondrosis symphysis synovial joints 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 17. 4. Locate examples of the following types of synovial joints in the skeleton. At the same time, examine the corresponding joints in the models and in your own skeleton. Experiment with each joint to...

Procedure Ctwopoint Threshold

Test your partner's ability to recognize the difference between one or two points of skin being stimulated simultaneously. To do this, follow these steps a. Have your partner place a hand with the palm up on the table and close his or her eyes. b. Hold the tips of a forceps tightly together and gently touch the skin of your partner's index finger. c. Ask your partner to report if it feels like one or two points are touching the finger. d. Allow the tips of the forceps to spread so they are 1 mm...

Part B

Provide the labels for the electron micrograph in figure 18.5. Figure 18.5 Identify the bands and lines of the striations in this transmission electron micrograph of relaxed sarcomeres (8,400x). Figure 18.5 Identify the bands and lines of the striations in this transmission electron micrograph of relaxed sarcomeres (8,400x). _of a muscle is usually attached to a fixed part. _of a muscle is usually attached to a movable part. 3. The forearm is flexed at the elbow when the_muscle contracts. 4. A...

Procedure

Frogs Heart Process

Review a textbook section on regulation of the cardiac cycle. 2. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 43. t ry to become familiar with the content and organization of this lab before you pith a frog. If you work quickly, one pithed frog should last for all of the experimental steps. 3. Observe the normal action of a frog heart. To do this, follow these steps a. Obtain a live frog, and pith it according to the directions in Procedure C of Laboratory Exercise 19. a n anesthetizing agent, tricaine...

Procedure Cthe Stomach

Dips Procedure Liver

Review a textbook section on the stomach. 2. As a review activity, label figures 49.6 and 49 7. 3. Observe the torso, and locate the following features of the stomach cardiac region fundic region body region pyloric region pyloric canal pyloric sphincter (valve) lesser curvature greater curvature 4. Examine a microscopic section of stomach wall, using low-power magnification. Note how the inner lining of simple columnar epithelium dips inward to form gastric pits. The gastric glands are tubular...

Consists Of Several Layers Of Cube Shaped And Elongated Cells

Consists of several layers of cube-shaped and elongated cells 2. commonly possesses cilia that move sex cells and mucus 3. single layer of flattened cells 4. nuclei located at different levels within cells 5. forms walls of capillaries and air sacs of lungs 6. forms linings of respiratory passages 7. younger cells cuboidal, older cells flattened 8. forms inner lining of urinary bladder 9. lines kidney tubules and ducts of salivary glands 10. forms lining of stomach and intestines 11. nuclei...

Column B

Forms framework of outer ear 2. functions as heat insulator beneath skin 3. contains large amounts of fluid and lacks fibers 4. cells arranged around osteonic canal 5. binds skin to underlying organs 6. main tissue of tendons and ligaments 7. provides stored energy supply in fat vacuoles 8. forms the flexible part of the nasal septum 9. pads between vertebrae that are shock absorbers 10. forms supporting rings of respiratory passages 11. cells greatly enlarged with nuclei pushed to sides 12....

Critical Thinking Application

Monitor Lizard Dissection

Identify the muscles indicated in figure 23.7. Figure 23.7 Identify the muscles that appear as lower limb surface features in these photographs (a and b). Figure 23.7 Identify the muscles that appear as lower limb surface features in these photographs (a and b). (a) Left thigh, anterior view (b) Right lower limb, medial view (a) Left thigh, anterior view (b) Right lower limb, medial view

Additive Phenomenon Called

Ions tend to pass through cell membranes more easily than sodium ions. 2. When a nerve cell is at rest, there is a relatively greater concentration of 3. When sodium ions are actively transported outward through a nerve cell membrane,_ 4. The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of a nerve cell membrane is called the _potential. 5. As a result of an additive phenomenon called_, the threshold potential of a membrane 6. An action potential is a rapid sequence of...

Basilar Membrane

Vestibular System Diagram

O bserve the section of the cochlea in the microscope set up by the laboratory instructor. Locate one of the turns of the cochlea, and using figures 33.3 and 33.4 as a guide, identify the scala vestibuli, cochlear duct, scala tympani, vestibular membrane, basilar membrane, and the organ of Corti. Figure 33.1 Label the major stuctures of the ear. Figure 33.2 Label the structures of the inner ear by placing the correct numbers in the spaces provided. canals Figure 33.2 Label the structures of the...

Procedure Adiffusion

Review a textbook section on diffusion. 2. To demonstrate diffusion, follow these steps a. Place a petri dish half filled with water on a piece of white paper that has a millimeter ruler positioned on the paper. Wait until the water surface is still. Allow approximately 3 minutes. b. Using forceps, place one crystal of potassium permanganate near the center of the petri dish and near the millimeter ruler (fig. 5.1). c. Measure the radius of the purple circle at 1-minute intervals for 10...

Of Bone

Epiphysis Bone

Complete the following statements (Note Questions 1-6 pertain to bone classification by shape.) 1. A bone that is platelike is classified as a(an)_bone. 2. The bones of the wrist are examples of_bones. 3. The bone of the thigh is an example of a(an)_bone. 4. Vertebrae are examples of_bones. 5. The patella (kneecap) is an example of a large_bone. 6. The bones of the skull that form a protective covering of the brain are examples of_ 7. Distinguish between the epiphysis and the diaphysis of a...

Procedure Imuscles Of The Hip And Hindlimb

Human Tensor Fascia Latae

Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray with its ventral side up. 2. Remove any remaining fat and connective tissue from the hip and hindlimb to expose the muscles. 3. Study figure 24.9, and then locate and dissect the following muscles from the medial surface of the thigh 4. Using scissors, transect the sartorius and gracilis, and lift aside their cut edges to observe the deeper muscles of the thigh. 5. Study figure 24.9, and then locate and dissect the following muscles 6. Transect the...

Procedure Bosmosis

Selectively Semipermeable Membrane

Review a textbook section on osmosis. 2. To demonstrate osmosis, refer to figure 5.2 as you a. One person plugs the tube end of a thistle tube with a finger. b. Another person then fills the bulb with molasses until it is about to overflow at the top of the bulb. Note that air remains trapped in the stem. c. Cover the bulb opening with a single-thickness piece of moist selectively permeable (semipermeable) membrane. Dialysis tubing that has been soaked for 30 minutes can easily be cut open...

Procedure A Respiratory Organs

Where Your Epiglottis

Review a textbook section on organs of the respiratory system. 2. As a review activity, label figures 52.1, 52.2, 52.3, and 52.4. 3. Examine the sagittal section of the human skull, and locate the following features nostrils (external nares) nasal cavity nasal septum nasal conchae superior meatus middle meatus inferior meatus sinuses maxillary sinus frontal sinus ethmoidal sinus sphenoidal sinus 4. Observe the larynx model, the thoracic organs model, and the human torso. Locate the features...

Corpora Quadrigemina Sheep Brain

Frontal Lobe Missing

Obtain a preserved sheep brain and rinse it thoroughly in water to remove as much of the preserving fluid as possible. 2. Examine the surface of the brain for the presence of meninges. The outermost layers of these membranes may have been lost during removal of the brain from the cranial cavity. If meninges are present, locate the following dura mater the thick, opaque outer layer arachnoid mater the delicate, transparent middle layer that is attached to the undersurface of the dura mater pia...

Label This Arteriole By Placing The Correct Numbers In The Spaces Provided

Flooding Procedures Vessels

Review a textbook section on blood vessels. 2. As a review activity, label figures 44.1 and 44.2. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 44. 4. Obtain a microscope slide of an artery cross section and examine it using low-power and high-power magnification. Identify the three distinct layers tunics of the arterial wall. The inner layer tunica interna , is composed of an endothelium simple squamous epithelium and appears as a wavy line due to an abundance of elastic fibers that have recoiled...

Part ASomatic Receptors

1. _are receptors that are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of chemicals. 2. Whenever tissues are damaged,_receptors are likely to be stimulated. 3. Receptors that are sensitive to temperature changes are called_. 4. _are sensitive to changes in pressure or to movement of fluid. 5. _are sensitive to changes in the intensity of light energy. 6. A sensation may seem to fade away when receptors are continuously stimulated as a result of _adaptation. 7. Meissner s corpuscles are...

The Skull

Human skull, disarticulated Beauchene A human skull consists of twenty-two bones that, except for the lower jaw, are firmly interlocked along sutures. Eight of these immovable bones make up the braincase, or cranium, and thirteen more immovable bones and the mandible form the facial skeleton.

Study Skills For Anatomy And Physiology

My students have found that certain study skills worked well for them while enrolled in Human Anatomy and Physiology. Although each individual has a somewhat different learning style, there are techniques that work well for the majority of students. Utilizing some of the skills listed here could make your course more enjoyable and rewarding. 1. Note taking Look for the main ideas and briefly express them in your own words. Organize, edit, and review your notes soon after the lecture. Add...

Minimal Intensity Of Stimulation Necessary To Trigger A Muscle Contraction

Match the terms in column A with the definitions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. g. tetanic contraction tetanus 1. minimal intensity of stimulation necessary to trigger a muscle contraction 2. response of a muscle fiber motor unit complete contraction if stimulated sufficiently 3. consists of a single motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers with which the neuron is associated 4. an action of a muscle contraction and immediate relaxation when exposed to a...

Part BSense of Touch

Record a to indicate where the bristle was felt and a 0 to indicate where it was not felt. 2. Show distribution of touch receptors in two other regions of skin. a. How do you describe the pattern of distribution for touch receptors in the regions of the skin you tested b. How does the concentration of touch receptors seem to vary from region to region

Membranous Channel Extending Inward From Muscle Fiber Membrane

Match the terms in column A with the Column A i. sarcolemma j. sarcomere k. sarcoplasm definitions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. 1. membranous channel extending inward from muscle fiber membrane 3. network of connective tissue that extends throughout the muscular system 4. layer of connective tissue that separates a muscle into small bundles called fascicles 5. enlarged portion of sarcoplasmic reticulum on either side of a transverse tubule 6. broad sheet...

Reviewers

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all reviewers of the laboratory manual who provided suggestions for its improvement. Their thoughtful comments and valuable suggestions are greatly appreciated. They include the following John C. Conroy University of Winnipeg Leslie Nesbitt Curtin Niagara University Michael A. Palladino Monmouth University North Shore Community College Nikki Privacky Linn-Benton Community College Louis Wigginton St. Clair County Community College Arlene Wolff

Procedure Cthymus And Spleen

Human Spleen Diagram

Review a textbook section on the thymus and spleen. 2. Locate the thymus and spleen in the anatomical chart of the lymphatic system and on the human torso. 3. Complete Part C of the laboratory report. 4. Obtain a prepared microscope slide of human thymus and observe it using low-power magnification fig. 48.3 . Note how the thymus is subdivided into lobules by septa of connective tissue that contain blood vessels. Identify the capsule of loose connective tissue that surrounds the thymus, the...

Procedure Brespiratory Air Volumes And Capacities

Human Anatomy Volumes

Review a textbook section on respiratory volumes and capacities. 2. Complete Part B of the laboratory report. 3. Obtain a handheld spirometer. Note that the needle can be set at zero by rotating the adjustable dial. Before using the instrument, clean it with cotton moistened with 70 alcohol and place a new disposable mouthpiece over its stem. The instrument should be held with the dial upward and air should be blown into the disposable mouthpiece. Movement of the needle indicates the air...

Part CTwo Point Threshold

Record the two-point threshold in millimeters for skin in each of the following regions 2. Answer the following questions a. What region of the skin tested has the greatest ability to discriminate two points _ b. What region of the skin has the least sensitivity to this test c. What is the significance of these observations in questions a and b _

Procedure Bdifferential White Blood Cell Count

Normal Differental Blood Slide

A differential white blood cell count is performed to determine the percentage of each of the various types of white blood cells present in a blood sample. The test is useful because the relative proportions of white blood cells may change in particular diseases. Neutrophils, for example, usually increase during bacterial infections, whereas eosinophils may increase during certain parasitic infections and allergic reactions. 1. To make a differential white blood cell count, follow these steps...

The Reflex Arc and Reflexes

A reflex arc represents the simplest type of nerve pathway found in the nervous system. This pathway begins with a receptor at the end of a sensory nerve fiber. The sensory fiber leads into the central nervous system and may communicate with one or more interneurons. Some of these interneurons, in turn, communicate with motor neurons, whose fibers lead outward to effectors. Thus, when a sensory receptor is stimulated by some kind of change occurring inside or outside the body, nerve impulses...

Organization of the Skeleton

The extra bones that sometimes develop between the flat bones of the skull are called _ 2. Small bones occurring in some tendons are called_bones. 3. The cranium and facial bones compose the _ 4. The_bone supports the tongue. 5. The_at the inferior end of the sacrum is composed of several fused vertebrae. 6. Most ribs are attached anteriorly to the _ 7. The thoracic cage is composed of_ 8. The scapulae and clavicles together form the 10. The wrist is composed of eight bones called _ 11. The...

Demonstrationblood Slide Preparation

To prepare a stained blood slide, follow these steps 1. Clean two microscope slides with a cleaning agent such as borax and water, and thereafter avoid touching their flat surfaces. 2. Thoroughly wash hands with soap and water and dry them with paper towels. 3. Cleanse the end of the middle finger with some sterile cotton moistened with 70 alcohol and let the finger dry in the air. 4. Remove a sterile disposable blood lancet from its package without touching the sharp end. 5. Puncture the skin...

What Happens When The Sheeting Is Pushed Upward

O bserve the mechanical lung function model. Note that it consists of a heavy glass bell jar with a rubber sheeting tied over its wide open end. Its narrow upper opening is plugged with a rubber stopper through which a glass Y tube is passed. Small rubber balloons are fastened to the arms of the Y fig. 54.1 . What happens to the balloons when the rubber sheeting is pulled downward What happens when the sheeting is pushed upward What part of the respiratory system is represented by

The Joints

Models of synovial joints shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee fresh animal joint knee joint preferred radiographs of major joints Wear disposable gloves when handling the fresh animal joint. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Joints are junctions between bones. Although they vary considerably in structure, they can be classified according to the type of tissue that binds the bones together. Thus, the three groups of joints can be identified as 1 fibrous joints, 2 cartilaginous joints,...

Procedure A The Human Heart

Heart Labeled Brachocephalic

Review a textbook section on the structure of the heart. 2. As a review activity, label figures 41.1, 41.2, and 41.3. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 41. 4. Examine the human heart model and locate the following features fibrous pericardium outer layer parietal pericardium inner lining pericardial cavity epicardium visceral pericardium myocardium endocardium atria right ventricle left ventricle atrioventricular orifices atrioventricular valves A-V valves tricuspid valve bicuspid...

Draw And Label Olfactory Organ

Identify And Label Cilia And Microvilli

O bserve the olfactory epithelium in the microscope set up by the laboratory instructor. The olfactory receptor cells are spindle-shaped, bipolar neurons with spherical nuclei. They also have six to eight cilia at their distal ends. The supporting cells are pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells. However, in this region the tissue lacks goblet cells. See fig. 32.2. Figure 32.1 Label this diagram of the olfactory organ by placing the correct numbers in the spaces provided. Figure 32.1 Label...

Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

Human skeleton, articulated human skeleton, disarticulated The pectoral girdle consists of two clavicles and two scapulae. These parts function to support the upper limbs and to serve as attachments for various muscles that move these limbs. Each upper limb includes a humerus, radius, ulna, and several carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. These bones form the framework of the arm, forearm, and hand. They also function as parts of levers when the limbs are moved.

Blood Cells

Wbc Diff Result Tables

Red blood cells are also called_. 2. The shape of a red blood cell can be described as a_disk. 3. The shape of a red blood cell is related to its function of_. 4. _is the oxygen-carrying substance in a red blood cell. 5. Red blood cells with high oxygen concentrations are bright red because of the presence of 6. A mature red blood cell cannot reproduce because the_was extruded during late 7. White blood cells are also called_. 8. White blood cells with granular cytoplasm are called_. 9....

Structure of the Heart

Dissectible human heart model preserved sheep or other mammalian heart dissecting tray dissecting instruments Wear disposable gloves when working on the heart dissection. Save or dispose of the dissected heart as instructed. Wash the dissecting tray and instruments as instructed. Wash your laboratory table. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. The heart is a muscular pump located within the mediastinum and resting upon the diaphragm. It is enclosed by the lungs, thoracic vertebrae,...

Procedure Avisual Tests

Perform the following visual tests using your laboratory partner as a test subject. If your partner usually wears glasses, test each eye with and without the glasses. 1. Visual acuity test. Visual acuity sharpness of vision can be measured by using a Snellen eye chart fig. 36.1 . This chart consists of several sets of letters in different sizes printed on a white card. The letters near the top of the chart are relatively large, and those in each lower set become smaller. At one end of each set...

Visual Tests and Demonstrations

Snellen eye chart 3 x 5 card plain 3 x 5 card with word typed in center Ichikawa's or Ishihara's color plates for color-blindness test Normal vision emmetropia results when light rays from objects in the external environment are refracted by the cornea and lens of the eye and focused onto the photoreceptors of the retina. Irregular curvatures in the surface of the cornea or lens, inability to change the shape of the lens, or defects in the shape of the eyeball can result in defective vision.

Procedure Blymph Nodes

Thoracic Node Pics

Review a textbook section on lymph nodes. 2. As a review activity, label figure 48.2. 3. Complete Part B of the laboratory report. 4. Observe the anatomical chart of the lymphatic system and the human torso, and locate the clusters of lymph nodes in the following regions Figure 48.1 Label the diagram by placing the correct numbers in the spaces provided. Figure 48.1 Label the diagram by placing the correct numbers in the spaces provided. Jugular vein Lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels Right...

Blood Pressure

Anatomy Antecubital Space

Examine your laboratory partner's radial pulse. To a. Have your partner sit quietly, remaining as relaxed as possible. b. Locate the pulse by placing your index and middle fingers over the radial artery on the anterior surface of the wrist. Do not use your thumb for sensing the pulse, because you may feel a pulse coming from an artery in the thumb itself. c. Note the characteristics of the pulse. That is, could it be described as regular or irregular, strong or weak, hard or soft d. To...

Name The Muscle Indicated By The Following Combinations Of Origin And Insertion

Name the muscle indicated by the Origin 5. anterior surface of sternum and upper clavicle 6. outer surfaces of mandible and maxilla 10. processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae following combinations of origin and insertion. Insertion anterior surface of mandibular condyle lower border of mandible and skin around corner of mouth coronoid process and anterior ramus of mandible mastoid process of temporal bone and occipital bone

Demonstration Rh Blood Typing

Blood Cranium

Review a textbook section on the Rh Blood Group. 2. Complete Part C of the laboratory report. Table 40.1 Possible Reactions of ABO Blood-Typing Sera 3. To determine the Rh blood type of a blood sample, a. Lance the tip of a finger. See the demonstration procedures in Laboratory Exercise 38 for directions. Place a small drop of blood in the center of a clean microscope slide. b. Add a drop of anti-D serum to the blood and mix them together with a clean toothpick. c. Place the slide on the...

Bonelike Substance Beneath Tooth Enamel

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. Column A Column B bonelike substance beneath tooth enamel cone-shaped projection of soft palate secretes the digestive enzymes in saliva space between the teeth, cheeks, and lips lymphatic tissue in posterior wall of pharynx near auditory tubes portion of tooth projecting beyond gum

Procedure Dfiltration

Benedicts Blue Solution

Review a textbook section on filtration. 2. To demonstrate filtration, follow these steps a. Place a glass funnel in the ring of a ring stand over an empty beaker. Fold a piece of filter paper in half and then in half again. Open one thickness of the filter paper to form a cone, wet the cone, and place it in the funnel. The filter paper is used to demonstrate how movement across membranes is limited by the size of the molecules, but it does not represent a working model of biological...

Blood Vessels

Simple squamous epithelial tissue called_forms the inner linings of the tunica interna 2. The_of an artery wall contains many smooth muscle cells. 3. The_of an artery wall is largely composed of connective tissue. 4. Relaxation of the_in a blood vessel wall results in the vessel being in a condition of 5. The smallest blood vessels are called_. 6. The protective tight arrangement between the capillaries and tissues of the brain is called the blood-brain 7. Precapillary_are composed of smooth...

Hermaphrodite Parts Pictures On Humans

Reflex Arc For The Biceps Jerk

Review a textbook section on reflex arcs. 2. As a review activity, label figure 28.1. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 28. 4. Work with a laboratory partner to demonstrate each of the reflexes listed. See fig. 28.2 also. It is important that muscles involved in the reflexes be totally relaxed in order to observe proper responses. After each demonstration, record your observations in the table provided in Part B of the laboratory report. a. Knee-jerk reflex patellar reflex . Have your...

The

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. Column A Column B _ 1. posterior five-sixths of middle or vascular tunic _ 3. transparent anterior portion of outer tunic _ 7. fills posterior cavity of eye _ 8. area where optic nerve originates _ 9. smooth muscle that controls light intensity _ 10. fills anterior and posterior chambers of the anterior cavity of the eye _ 11. contains visual receptors called rods and cones _...

Lymphatic System

Lymphatic pathways begin as lymphatic_that merge to form lymphatic vessels. 2. The wall of a lymphatic capillary consists of a single layer of_epithelial cells. 3. Once tissue interstitial fluid is inside a lymph capillary, the fluid is called_. 4. Lymphatic vessels contain_that help prevent the backflow of lymph. 5. Lymphatic vessels usually lead to_that filter the fluid being transported. 6. The_is the larger and longer of the two lymphatic collecting ducts. 1. Lymph nodes contain large...

Identify The Numbered Muscles That Occur In Both The Pig And Human

Human Anatomy Muscles Identified

Each of the muscles in figure 24.11 is found both in the pig and in the human. Identify each of the numbered muscles in the figure by placing its name in the space next to its number. Figure 24.11 Identify the numbered muscles that occur in both the pig and the human. Figure 24.11 Identify the numbered muscles that occur in both the pig and the human.

Near Point Meter

Near Point Accomedation Test

Figure 36.3 To determine the near point of accommodation, slide the 3x 5 card along the meter stick toward your partner's open eye until the closest location where your partner can still see the word sharply focused. Figure 36.3 To determine the near point of accommodation, slide the 3x 5 card along the meter stick toward your partner's open eye until the closest location where your partner can still see the word sharply focused. a. Hang the astigmatism chart on a well-illuminated wall at eye...

Procedure Bpharynx And Esophagus

Labeled Laryngopharynx

Review textbook sections on the pharynx and esophagus. 2. As a review activity, label figure 49 5. 3. Observe the torso, and locate the following features opening to auditory tube Eustachian tube oropharynx laryngopharynx epiglottis esophagus lower esophageal sphincter cardiac sphincter 4. Have your partner take a swallow from a cup of water. Carefully watch the movements in the Figure 49.2 Label the features associated with the major salivary glands. Figure 49.2 Label the features...

Procedure E Muscles Of The Thorax

Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray with its ventral side up. Spread and secure all four limbs with twine. 2. Remove any remaining fat and connective tissue to expose the muscles in the walls of the thorax and abdomen. 3. Study figure 24.5. Locate and transect the superficial pectoral to expose the anterior deep pectoral. Locate and dissect the following pectoral muscles superficial pectoral pectoralis superficialis homologous to pectoralis major posterior deep pectoral pectoralis...

Procedure Cexamples Of Synovial Joints

Hip Joint Anatomy With Bursa

Study and compare the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints in figures 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 2. Examine models of the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints. Locate as many features as possible on the models that are illustrated in figures 17.1 through 17.5. 3. Complete Part E of the laboratory report. S tudy the available radiographs of joints by holding the films in front of a light source. Identify the type of joint and the bones incorporated in the joint. Also identify other major...

Procedure D Threshold Stimulation

Thread Veins Cirossis

To determine the threshold or minimal strength of electrical stimulation voltage needed to elicit a contraction in the frog muscle, follow these steps a. Set the stimulus duration to a minimum about 0.1 milliseconds . b. Set the voltage to a minimum about 0.1 volts . c. Set the stimulator so that it will administer single stimuli. 2. Administer a single stimulus to the muscle and watch to see if it responds. If no response is observed, increase the voltage to the next higher setting and...

Procedure Amouth And Salivary Glands

Nodules Sublingual Salivary Gland

Review textbook sections on the mouth and salivary glands. 2. As a review activity, label figures 49.1, 49.2, and 49 3. 3. Examine the mouth of the torso, the sagittal head section model, and a skull. Locate the following structures frenulum lingual papillae lingual tonsils palate hard palate soft palate uvula palatine tonsils pharyngeal tonsils adenoids gums gingivae teeth 4. Examine a sectioned tooth and a tooth model. Locate the following features 5. Observe the head of the torso, and...

Procedure A Breathing Mechanisms

Review textbook sections on inspiration and expiration. 2. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 54. Breathing involves the movement of air from outside the body through the bronchial tree and into the alveoli and the reversal of this air movement. These movements are caused by changes in the size of the thoracic cavity that result from skeletal muscle contractions and from the elastic recoil of stretched tissues. The volumes of air that move in and out of the lungs during various phases of...

Procedure Beye Dissection

Retinal Anatomy Dissection

Obtain a mammalian eye, place it in a dissecting tray, and dissect it as follows a. Trim away the fat and other connective tissues but leave the stubs of the extrinsic muscles and of the optic nerve. This nerve projects outward from the posterior region of the eyeball. b. Note the conjunctiva, which lines the eyelid and is reflected over the anterior surface except cornea of the eye. Lift some of this thin membrane away from the eye with forceps and examine it. c. Locate and observe the...

Procedure Esmall And Large Intestines

Anatomy The Large Intestine Humans

Review textbook sections on the small intestine and large intestine. 2. As a review activity, label figure 49.10. 3. Observe the torso, and locate each of the following features Figure 49.5 Label the features associated with the pharynx. Figure 49.5 Label the features associated with the pharynx. Figure 49.6 Label the major regions of the stomach and associated structures. Figure 49.6 Label the major regions of the stomach and associated structures. Figure 49.7 Label the lining of the...

Part AAmylase Activity

Explain the reason for including tube 1 in this experiment. b. What is the importance of tube 2 c. What do you conclude from the results of this experiment 1 Martin Human Anatomy 1 and Physiology 51. Action of a Digestive 1 Text Enzyme 1 1 The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 a. What do you conclude from the results of this experiment b. If digestion failed to occur in one of the tubes in this experiment, how can you tell if the amylase was destroyed by the factor being tested or if the amylase...

Cerebrum Sheep Dissection

Kangaroo Muscular Anatomy

O bserve a sheep brain from a coronal section. Note the longitudinal fissure, gray matter, white matter, corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, third ventricle, and thalamus. 10. Dispose of the sheep brain as directed by the laboratory instructor. 11. Complete Parts A and B of Laboratory Report 30. Figure 30.3 Lateral surface of the sheep brain. Figure 30.3 Lateral surface of the sheep brain. Figure 30.4 Ventral surface of the sheep brain. Longitudinal fissure Trigeminal nerve Facial nerve...

Each Of The Thirty-one Segments Of The Spinal

Each of the thirty-one segments of the spinal cord gives rise to a pair of_. 2. The bulge in the spinal cord that gives off nerves to the upper limbs is called the_ 3. The bulge in the spinal cord that gives off nerves to the lower limbs is called the_ 4. The_is a groove that extends the length of the spinal cord posteriorly. 5. In a spinal cord cross section, the posterior_of the gray matter appear as the upper 6. The cell bodies of motor neurons are found in the_horns of the spinal cord....

Anterior Forearm Superficial Muscle

Muscles The Anterior Forearm

Review textbook sections on muscles that move the pectoral girdle, muscles that move the arm, muscles that move the forearm, and muscles that move the hand. 2. As a review activity, label figures 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, and 21.4. 3. Locate the following muscles in the torso and models of the upper limb. Also, locate in your own body as many of the muscles as you can. muscles that move the pectoral girdle serratus anterior pectoralis minor muscles that move the arm coracobrachialis pectoralis major...

Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage

Lateral Manubrium Xray

The vertebral column encloses and protects the_. 2. The number of separate bones in the vertebral column of an adult is_. 3. The spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra is called the_and is an obvious surface feature that can be palpated. 4. The_of the vertebrae support the weight of the head and trunk. 5. The_separate adjacent vertebrae, and they soften the forces created by walking. 6. The pedicles, laminae, and_of a vertebra form the vertebral arch. 7. The intervertebral foramina...

Factors Affecting the Cardiac Cycle

Physiological recording apparatus such as a kymograph or Physiograph live frog dissecting tray dissecting instruments dissecting pins frog Ringer's solution in plastic squeeze bottle calcium chloride, 2 solution potassium chloride, 5 solution epinephrine, 1 10,000 solution acetylcholine, 1 10,000 solution caffeine, 0.2 solution - . Virtual Physiology Lab 4, Effects of Drugs on Ug amp P the Frog Heart Wear disposable gloves when handling the frogs. Dispose of the frogs according to your...

Neurolemmocyte On Skeletal Muscle Model

Label Skeletal Muscle Fiber

Review a textbook section on skeletal muscle tissue. 2. Reexamine the microscopic structure of skeletal muscle by observing a prepared microscope slide of this tissue. Use figure 18.1 of skeletal muscle tissue to locate the following features striations alternating light and dark 3. Review a textbook section on structure of a skeletal muscle. 4. Study figures 18.2 and 18.3. 5. Examine the torso and locate examples of fascia, tendons, and aponeuroses. Locate examples of tendons in your own...

Endocrine System Anatomy And Physiology

Thymus Gland Anatomy

Review textbook sections on the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, and other endocrine glands. 2. As a review activity, label figures 37.1, 37.2, 37.3, 37.4, 37.5, and 37.6. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 37. 4. Examine the human torso and locate the following pituitary stalk infundibulum pituitary gland thyroid gland parathyroid glands adrenal glands adrenal medulla adrenal cortex pancreas pineal gland thymus gland ovaries testes Figure...

Muscles of the Deep Back Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet

Muscular models of male and female pelves The deep muscles of the back extend the vertebral column. Because the muscles have numerous origins, insertions, and subgroups, the muscles overlap each other. The deep back muscles can extend the spine when contracting as a group but also help to maintain posture and normal spine curvatures. The anterior and lateral walls of the abdomen contain broad, flattened muscles arranged in layers. These muscles connect the rib cage and vertebral column to the...

Procedure Bhearing Tests

Rinnes And Weber Test

Perform the following tests in a quiet room, using your laboratory partner as the test subject. 1. Auditory acuity test. To conduct this test, follow a. Have the test subject sit with eyes closed. b. Pack one of the subject's ears with cotton. c. Hold a ticking watch close to the open ear and slowly move it straight out and away from the ear. d. Have the subject indicate when the sound of the ticking can no longer be heard. e. Use a meter stick to measure the distance in centimeters from the...

Optional Activity

Mammal Fibrocartilage 400x

U se colored pencils to differentiate various cellular structures in Part B. Select a different color for the cells, fibers, and ground substance whenever visible. Figure 8.1 Identify each of the connective tissues shown in these micrographs. Magnifications a 250x micrograph enlarged to 500x b 400x c 100x micrograph enlarged to 1,200x d 450x micrograph enlarged to 1,800x e 50x micrograph enlarged to 100x f 265x g 250x micrograph enlarged to 1,000x h 1,200x i 250x micrograph enlarged to 1,000x j...

Abo Blood Typing

How Separet The Blood From The Serum

Review a textbook section on the ABO blood group. 2. Compete Part A of Laboratory Report 40. 3. Perform the ABO blood type test using the blood-typing kit. To do this, follow these steps a. Obtain a clean microscope slide and mark across its center with a wax pencil to divide it into right and left halves. Also write anti-A near the edge of the left half and anti-B near the edge of the right half fig. 40.1 . b. Place a small drop of blood on each half of the microscope slide. Work quickly so...

Oral Cavity Of Fetal

Liver Lobes Fetal Pig

Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray on its left side. 2. Locate the major salivary glands on one side of the head. To do this, follow these steps a. Clear away any remaining fascia and other connective tissue from the region below the ear and near the joint of the mandible. b. Identify the parotid gland, a relatively large triangular mass of glandular tissue just below the ear. Although this gland covers a large area, it is poorly developed in the fetal stage of development. c. Look...

Diagram Of Composite Cell

Figure Animal Cell Source Label

Review a textbook section on a composite cell. 2. Observe the animal cell model and identify its major parts. 3. As a review activity, label figure 4.1 and study figure 4.2. 4. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 4. 5. Prepare a wet mount of cells lining the inside of the cheek. To do this, follow these steps a. Gently scrape force is not necessary and should be avoided the inner lining of your cheek with the broad end of a flat toothpick. b. Stir the toothpick in a drop of water on a clean...

The Ear and Hearing

Right Cochlea Labeled

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. Column A Column B ceruminous gland external auditory meatus auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane membranous labyrinth osseous labyrinth air-filled space containing auditory ossicles leads from oval window to apex of cochlea S-shaped tube leading to tympanic membrane cone-shaped, semitransparent membrane attached to malleus auditory ossicle attached to oval window __11....

Procedure C The Venous System

Inguinal Ligament

Review a textbook section on the venous system. 2. As a review activity, label figures 46.6, 46.7, 46.8, 46.9, and 46.10. 3. Locate the following veins of the systemic circuit on the charts and the torso external jugular veins internal jugular veins subclavian veins brachiocephalic veins Figure 46.3 Label the major arteries of the shoulder and upper limb. Figure 46.3 Label the major arteries of the shoulder and upper limb. superior vena cava veins from upper limb and shoulder radial vein...

Locate And Name The Largest Foramen In The Skeleton

Posterior Skeleton Pelvic Girdle

Review textbook sections on the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. 2. As a review activity, label figure 12.1. 3. Examine the human skeleton and locate the following parts. Palpate as many of the corresponding bones in your own skeleton as possible. cranial bones facial bones hyoid bone vertebral column vertebrae intervertebral disks sacrum coccyx thoracic cage ribs pectoral girdle scapulae clavicles upper limbs humerus radius ulna carpals metacarpals phalanges pelvic girdle...

Endocrine System

Name six hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. 2. Name two hormones secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. 3. Name the pituitary hormone responsible for the following actions _ a. stimulates ovarian follicle to secrete estrogen and egg development b. causes kidneys to conserve water _ c. stimulates cells to increase in size and divide more rapidly _ d. essential for egg release from the ovary e. stimulates secretion from thyroid...

Anatomy Of A Pig Fetus

Thyroid Cartilage Fetal Pig

Place the fetal pig in a dissecting tray with its ventral side up. Examine the nostrils external nares located on the the flat rostrum snout . Open the mouth wide to expose the hard palate and the soft palate see figs. 50.2 and 53.1 . Cut through the tissues of the soft palate, and observe the nasopharynx above it. Locate the small openings of the auditory tubes in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx. Insert a probe into an opening of an auditory tube. Examine the oropharynx located near...

What Do You Think Of The Transverse Ridges In The Hard Palate Of The

Compare the locations of the major salivary glands of the human with those of the fetal pig. 2. Compare the types and numbers of primary deciduous teeth present in the pig's maxilla with those of the human. _ 3. In what ways do the pig's teeth seem to be adapted to its diet 4. What part of the human soft palate is lacking in the pig _ 5. What do you think is the function of the transverse ridges rugae in the hard palate of the pig 6. Describe the papillae on the...

Demonstration Cred Blood Cell Count

Pic Wbc Hemocytometer

Although modern clinical laboratories commonly use electronic instruments to obtain blood cell counts, a hemocy-tometer provides a convenient and inexpensive way to count both red and white blood cells. This instrument is a Figure 39.1 Steps in the red blood cell percentage procedure a load a heparinized capillary tube with blood b plug the blood end of the tube with sealing clay c place the tube in a microhematocrit centrifuge. Figure 39.1 Steps in the red blood cell percentage procedure a...

Procedure A External Features

Internal Nares Anatomy

Fetal pigs usually are embalmed with a mixture of propylene glycol, formaldehyde, and phenol, which prevents microorganisms from causing the tissues to decompose. However, because fumes from this embalming fluid may be annoying and may irritate skin, be sure to work in a well-ventilated room and wear disposable gloves to protect your hands. If your fetal pig has an incision in the neck, it marks the location where colored latex was injected into the blood vessels. Rinse the pig off before...

Skeletal Muscle Dissection

Concise Fetal Pig Dissection Chart

The purpose of a skeletal muscle dissection is to separate the individual muscles from any surrounding tissues and thus expose the muscles for observation. To do a muscle dissection, follow these steps a. Use the appropriate figure as a guide and locate the muscle to be dissected in the specimen. b. Use a blunt probe to separate the muscle from the surrounding connective tissue along its natural borders. The muscle should separate Figure 24.3 The dotted lines indicate the shallow skin i...

Procedure H Muscles Of The Forelimb

Fetal Pig Triceps Brachii Muscle Ventral

Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray with its ventral side up. 2. Remove any remaining fat and connective tissue from a forelimb to expose the muscles. 3. Transect the pectoral muscles and lift aside their cut edges. 4. Study figure 24.8, and then locate and dissect the following muscles from the medial surface of the arm and forearm of the forelimb biceps brachii triceps brachii long head medial head Figure 24.8 Medial muscles of the right forelimb, ventral view. Figure 24.8 Medial...

Procedure Gmuscles Of The Shoulder And Back

Shoulder Anatomy Deltoid Insertion

Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray onto its lateral surface. 2. Remove any remaining fat and connective tissue to expose the muscles of the shoulder and back. 3. Study figure 24.6, and then locate and dissect the following superficial muscles 4. Using scissors, transect the latissimus dorsi and the group of trapezius muscles. Lift aside their cut edges and remove any underlying fat and connective tissue. Study figure 24.7, and then locate and dissect the following deep muscles of the...