Of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Cristina Oprica, Carl Erik Nord

11.1 Normal Microflora of the Skin ... 86

11.3 General Factors About Bacterial Involvement in HS Pathogenicity . . 90

11.4 The Role of Antibiotics in the Treatment of HS 91

11.5 Possible Consequences for Bacterial Ecology due to Antibiotic Treatment in HS 92

References 92

Chapter 12 Endocrinology

Michel Faure, Evelyne Drapier-Faure

12.1 Introduction 95

12.2 Hyperandrogenism and the Skin . . 95

12.2.1 Androgenization 95

12.2.2 Androgen Metabolism 96

12.3 Lack of Association between HS

and Endocrinopathies 97

12.4 HS and Biological Hyper-androgenism 97

12.5 End-Organ Androgen Sensitivity? .98 References 98

Chapter 13 Immunity

Istvan Nagy, Lajos Kemény

13.1 Introduction 100

13.2 Ancient and Modern:

Innate and Acquired Immunity . . 101

13.3 TLR/IL-1R Superfamily and their Signaling Pathways in the Skin . . 102

13.4 Members of the TLR Family Expressed by Keratinocytes 102

13.5 IL-1 Receptors in the Skin 104

13.6 Signaling Pathways via TLR/IL-1R 104

13.6.1 MyD88-Dependent Signaling Pathway 104

13.6.2 MyD88-Independent Signaling Pathway 105

13.7 Keratinocyte-Derived Effector Molecules in the Innate Immune System of the Skin 105

13.8 Antimicrobial Peptides 105

13.9 ß-Defensins 106

13.10 Cathelicidins 106

13.11 RNase7 107

13.12 Antileukoprotease (ALP) 107

13.13 Pro-Inflammatory Chemokines . . 107

13.14 Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines . . . 108

13.15 TLR Recognition and the Commensal Microbiota of the Skin 109

13.16 Skin Infections and Innate Immune Responses of the Epidermis 110

13.17 Hidradenitis Suppurativa and the Skin Immune System ... 110

13.18 Conclusions 112

References 112

Chapter 14

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