Secretion of Soluble MICA into Serum in HCC and NKG2D Expression in NK Cells

Recently, it has been reported that some MICA expressed in tumor cells are truncated and their extracellular domains are secreted into culture solutions as soluble forms (Groh et al., 2002 Salih et al., 2002). It is known that soluble MICA (sMICA) is detected in the serum of patients with prostate cancer, colon cancer, brain neoplasm, and leukemia. The importance of this phenomenon is that MICA expression in tumor cells is decreased due to cleavage and NK responsiveness is decreased due to...

Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

As early as the days of Hippocrates, hepatitis has been described as a disease that occurs in the young and shows the cardinal symptom of jaundice, which sometimes develops into a critical condition. Ironically, research on hepatitis progressed rapidly during World War II because injuries and the terrible sanitary conditions of the battlefields caused serious hepatitis epidemics. People recognized that hepatitis could be classified into two types infectious and serumal. The former became known...

Interferon System

Ifn Gamma Ifn Alpha Beta Signalling

Interferons are the cytokines, which are produced initially to defend the host against infection, through mechanisms that inhibit the replication of a number of viruses. There are two main types of interferon. Type I interferons include interferon-alpha, interferon-beta, interferon-omega, and interferon-delta. Interferon-gamma is a Type II interferon. Interferon-alpha is mainly produced by leukocytes dendritic cells and macrophages . Interferon-beta is produced by most of the epithelial cells...

Mechanisms of Interferon Action

Our understanding of interferon action against the hepatitis C virus is possible due to the availability of HCV cell culture models. Work on this area began almost 10 years ago by Shimizu 1992, 1993, 1996 , where HCV replication models were developed in lymphoid cell lines. Subsequently, full-length chimpanzee infectious clones for HCV were developed by the laboratories of Dr. Charles Rice, Rockefeller University Kolykhalov et al., 1997 , and Dr. Jens Bukh of NIH Yanagi et al., 1997 . An...