TCell Immune Responses

Little data exist about the HDV-specific cellular immune response. Two studies in humans identified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that, interestingly, were only identified in patients with inactive HDV disease (HDV RNA negative). The number of investigated patients, however, was very low and no study has explored the kinetics of the HDV-specific immune response up to now.

Negro et al. demonstrated that rechallenge with HDV of chimpanzees, which had apparently recovered from a first HDV infection, resulted in the reappearance of HDV replication, sometimes associated with hepatitis (Negro et al. 1989). However, only low levels of viremia were detected and ALT elevations, when present, were mild. This finding suggests that at least a partial immunity against HDV can be raised.

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