Editing at the amber/W site plays a critical role in the HDV replication cycle. Analysis of how the virus controls editing has led to valuable contributions to the field of RNA adenosine deamination. Thus far, amber/W site editing is the only example of specific editing that occurs in an organ other than the brain in mammals, but it is highly likely that more examples will be identified. The differences in editing sites, structures, and regulatory mechanisms between HDV genotypes I and III is remarkable, and emphasizes just how different these two genotypes are. Understanding how editing is regulated during the course of HDV replication remains an important goal. There is still much to learn in this area, which is largely undeveloped for host targets of specific editing. One of the more exciting recent developments has been the identification of the role of RNA structural dynamics in controlling amber/W site editing in HDV genotype III. Further analysis of editing at the amber/W site will advance our understanding of the determinants of viral replication and is likely to continue to contribute to the field of RNA editing.

Acknowledgements The work in the author's laboratory is supported by NIH grant R01-AI42324. I thank Dr. Renxiang Chen and Sarah Linnstaedt in my laboratory for sharing unpublished results and for comments on the manuscript.

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