Release Of Heat Shock Proteins Passive Versus Active Release Mechanisms

ALEXZANDER A.A. ASEA*

Division of Investigative Pathology, Scott & White Memorial Hospital and Clinic and The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, Texas, USA

Abstract: There is now no doubt that heat shock proteins have a profound immunoregulatory effect on the host's immune system. This knowledge has successfully been harnessed to generate a number of important clinical trails. However, one intriguing question that remains to be answered is how heat shock proteins (HSP) which do not have peptide leader sequence targeting secretion can gain access to the extracellular milieu. This chapter will discuss the most recent findings in the area of HSP release and attempts to broadly categorize these findings into two basic mechanisms; the passive and active mechanisms

Keywords: Chaperokine; exosomes; heat shock proteins; inflammation; lipid rafts; protein transport; stress

Abbreviations: eHsp72, extracellular Hsp72; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; Hsp, heat shock proteins;

Hsc70; constitutively expressed seventy-kilo Dalton heat shock protein; Hsp72, stress inducible seventy-kilo Dalton heat shock protein; HSF-1, heat shock factor-1; IFN-^, interferon-gamma; IL, interleukin; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MßD, methyl ß-cyclodextrin

* Chief, Division of Investigative Pathology, Scott & White Clinic and The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, 2401 South 31st Street, Temple, TX 76508 U.S.A. Tel: +1(254)743 - 0201; Fax: +1(254)743 - 0247; E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]

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