The use of cross-circulation followed by the development of the bubble oxygenator for cardiopulmonary bypass was the focal point in the history of cardiac surgery. However, cardiac surgery may be considered still in its infancy, with most of the major developments occurring only in the last 50 years. Tremendous advances in the field of cardiac surgery are certain to result from the numerous ongoing efforts of researchers and clinicians alike.

This chapter was designed to give an introduction to the complex nature of valve disease. Several excellent textbooks have been written that provide greater detail for each valve procedure discussed. Such reference texts are valuable for both the clinician and the engineer interested in understanding the etiology and the current treatment techniques for valve disease. Nevertheless, this basis of understanding, along with the use of further animal and clinical research, will allow the development of the next generation of treatment options for heart valve disease.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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