The development and application of clinical echocar-diography has allowed thorough, accurate, and noninvasive evaluation of cardiac structure and function. Transthoracic echocardiography is a mainstay of cardiac diagnosis and monitoring in both adult and pediatric patients. Advances in 2D imaging allow significant anatomical detail to be visualized, especially in smaller patients, and Doppler ultrasound allows direct visualization of altered flow patterns and noninvasive investigation of hemodynamics. The use of transesophageal echocardiography, although slightly more invasive, has become routine when improved resolution and intraprocedural monitoring are required. Future directions include increased utilization of intravascular ultrasound for diagnosis and monitoring of interventional procedures, improvement in 3D ultrasound techniques that will make them appropriate for routine imaging, and the use of embryonic imaging to study normal and abnormal heart development.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.