Advanced methods and technology continue to be developed for the assessment of cardiac hemodynamics. Such monitoring can be used acutely; however, many new technologies are in development (miniaturized implantable sensors) for chronic monitoring of the cardiac patient. In this chapter, we provided a general overview of several devices and systems that can be used either clinically or experimentally to monitor cardiac performance. However, it should be reiterated that to understand best how the output of such devices can be used for the assessment of cardiac function, an in-depth understanding of underlying basic cardiac physiology must be possessed.
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