Introduction

Today, anesthesia is considered necessary for many types of surgeries and procedures. In general, anesthesia may provide analgesia, amnesia, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation. The depth of administered anesthesia can vary from minimal sedation to general anesthesia (Table 1). General anesthesia typically causes significant alterations in hemodynamics, especially during induction of anesthesia. Importantly, both inhalational and intravenous anesthetics can affect cardiovascular performance; this includes effects on cardiac output, heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac conduction system, myocardial contractility, coronary blood flow, or blood pressures. Yet, the choice of inhalational and intravenous anesthetics is typically associated with the patient's underlying cardiovascular status, such as the presence of heart failure and hypovolemia. The primary goal of this chapter is to make commonly employed methodologies and anesthetics more familiar to the reader, with particular attention to the potential influences on the cardiovascular system.

From: Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices Edited by: P. A. Iaizzo © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ

Advanced Hypnosis For Newbies

Advanced Hypnosis For Newbies

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