Future Directions

The ultimate goal of less-invasive cardiac surgery is to avoid cardiopulmonary bypass support, sternotomy, and tho-racotomy and rather perform surgery through tiny incisions.

Various of specially designed instruments have been developed to make such procedures possible, including: (1) automated proximal and distal CABG anastomotic devices; (2) the endo myocardium stabilizer; (3) the endo suture device; and (4) the "endo vascular clamp." The daVinci surgical robotic system has enabled use of such instruments inside the closed chest cavity. It is likely that in the very near future, cardiac surgery will be performed utilizing only three to four key holes in the chest wall (Fig. 6).

Lump Chest Near Sternum
Fig. 5. The surgeon is operating on the robotic console away from the patient. (See color version on Companion CD.)
Four Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Fig. 6. Small incisions after multivessel off-pump sternum-sparing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. (See color version on Companion CD.)
Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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