Tinnitus

Erik S. Viirre and Quyen Nguyen

Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, U.S.A.

■ Introduction 380

■ Epidemiology of Tinnitus 380

■ Objective Tinnitus 380

■ Subjective Tinnitus 381

■ Neurologic System 381

■ Psychological Disorders 382

■ Musculoskeletal System 382

■ Endocrine System 382

■ Immune System 382

■ Other Causes 383

■ Infectious 383

■ Iatrogenic 383

■ Further Reading 384

■ References 384

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