Hearing loss resulting from dysfunction of the inner ear or the eighth cranial nerve is a common patient complaint, particularly in the aging population. Most commonly, sensorineural hearing loss results from a disease process that is specific to the ear; common examples include presbycusis (hearing loss associated with aging) and hearing loss secondary to noise exposure. However, there are multisystemic diseases associated with inner ear or vestibulocochlear nerve pathology. In addition, certain treatments of systemic diseases may be ototoxic. This chapter will review those systemic disease processes that can cause sensorineural hearing loss.

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