Introduction

Acute invasive fungal sinusitis must be suspected when an immunocompromised patient develops fever and signs of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Prompt recognition is critical because the infection can evolve over hours. In the current era of transplant immunosuppression, chemotherapy, and advanced HIV, clinicians must be able to make the diagnosis and institute prompt therapy. Unfortunately, the causative zygomycetous fungi are ubiquitous in nature. As a consequence, immunosuppressed patients are exposed to these fungi during day-to-day activities.

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