Sickle cell is diagnosed by Hb electrophoresis. The sickle cell solubility test is another test that detects the presence of sickle Hb; however, it does not distinguish between sickle cell trait and other sickle cell disorders. Family studies and the measurement of Hb-A2 and Hb-F are used to complete the diagnosis of sickle cell disease (16). In the United States, there is universal screening for sickle cell disease. Therefore, the diagnosis should be well established in most clinical encounters.

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