KD is an acute rash/fever illness of childhood that is recognized by a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms (1). The vasculitis causes damage to the coronary arteries in up to 25% of untreated children. Although an infectious trigger is suspected, the cause of KD is unknown and there is no specific laboratory-based diagnostic test. Principal clinical criteria include fever for at least four days accompanied by at least four of five clinical signs listed in Table 1. New guidelines from the American Heart Association incorporate laboratory data and echocardiographic data into the diagnostic algorithm for patients with fewer than four criteria (Table 2) (2).

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