Forward Head Posture Fix

Forward Head Posture Fix

This ebook guide teaches you the muscles that you need to work to make sure that you have excellent posture all day long, and that you will have the benefits that go along with good posture. You will be able to get rid of many headaches, brain fog, and aching neck muscles by using this workout. There is no need to look old! Stooping is the sign of old age Even if you are an older person you too can work out this muscle group to give you the powerful posture of a much younger person! This bad posture that we are correcting is called texting neck. It comes when you look down at something (like a book or your phone) too often, which puts a huge strain on your neck. You will learn how to fix this problem and help your neck to be in better shape today. Your neck is supposed to remain vertical; we can help put it back where it goes to make sure that you stay healthy for years to come. Read more...

Forward Head Posture Fix Summary


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I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

This ebook served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Head Positions

Nystagmus Alexander Law

Observations about head position or head movement can be very informative. Spasmus nutans, a benign form of acquired nystagmus, often has an associated head bob or torticollis. A patient with congenital motor nystagmus often develops a head turn to dampen the nystagmus. Although the presence of a preferred head position is not particularly helpful in deciding about etiology, it has some bearing on visual function and the type of nystagmus. Patients with a jerk nystagmus more often tend to develop head positions than patients with pendular nystagmus this is because of Alexander's law of nystagmus, which states that a jerk nystagmus becomes worse when gazing in the direction of the fast component.4 Thus, a left jerk nystagmus becomes much worse in leftgaze and improves dramatically on rightgaze. Therefore, a patient with a left jerk nystagmus will have a left face turn and a right gaze preference Fig. 2-8). Old photographs can be helpful in documenting head positions.

Neck Muscles

Many of the muscles of the neck are named for their sites of origin and insertion. Beginning at the sternum locate the first of these muscles, the sternomastoid which begins at the sternum and ends at the mastoid process of the temporal bone. This muscle is homologous to the sternocleidomastoid of humans which originates on both the sternum and the clavicle.

Nonneoplastic Conditions

Branchial cleft cyst derived from remnants of the embryonic branchial apparatus following incomplete obliteration of the branchial pouches the most common form is believed to derive from the second branchial pouch. Cyst lies in the lateral neck near the angle of the jaw at the anterior border of sternocleidomastoid the sinus may open onto the skin at the junction of the middle one-third and lower one-third while the tract follows the carotid sheath and may fistu-late into tonsillar fossa. Lined by squamous epithelium with reactive lymphoid tissue in the wall 10 contain respiratory epithelium.

Physical Characteristics

Hornbills have patches of bare skin around the eyes and throat and long eyelashes on their upper lids. To support their head and large bill, they have strong neck muscles and two neck vertebrae, bones in the spinal column, connected together. Hornbill plumage, feathers, is not very colorful, usually with areas of black, white, gray, or brown. The color and size of plumage and the shape of the casque identifies the age and sex. Hornbills vary in size and shape, from 11.8 to 47.3 inches (30 to 120 centimeters) long, and weigh between 3.5 ounces and 13.25 pounds (100 grams and 6 kilograms). Males are larger and heavier than females and have bills that are up to 30 percent longer.

Clinical Terms Related to the Muscular System

Sensory Receptors Skeleton

Disease or disorder. myasthenia gravis (mi as-the'ne-ah grav'is) Chronic disease characterized by muscles that are weak and easily fatigued. It results from the immune system's attack on neuromuscular junctions so that stimuli are not transmitted from motor neurons to muscle fibers. myokymia (mi o-ki'me-ah) Persistent quivering of a muscle. myology (mi-ol'o-je) Study of muscles. myoma (mi-o'mah) Tumor composed of muscle tissue. myopathy (mi-op'ah-the) Any muscular disease. myositis (mi o-si'tis) Inflammation of skeletal muscle tissue. myotomy (mi-ot'o-me) Cutting of muscle tissue. myotonia (mi o-to'ne-ah) Prolonged muscular spasm. paralysis (pah-ral'i-sis) Loss of ability to move a body part. paresis (pah-re'sis) Partial or slight paralysis of the muscles. shin splints (shin' splints) Soreness on the front of the leg due to straining the anterior leg muscles, often as a result of walking up and down hills. torticollis (tor ti-kol'is) Condition in which the neck muscles, such as the...

Clinical Correlations

Anomolies The Neural Arch

Pharyngeal fistula (Figure 11-5 B) occurs when pharyngeal pouch 2 and pharyngeal groove 2 persist, forming a patent opening from the internal tonsillar area to the external neck. A pharyngeal fistula is generally found along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Figure 11-5. (A) Treacher Collins syndrome is characterized by underdevelopment of the zygomatic bones, mandibular hypoplasia (double arrows), lower eyelid colobomas, and malformed external ears (arrow). (13) Pharyngeal fistula. A radiograph after injection of a contrast medium demonstrating the course of the fistula through the neck (arrow). The fistula may begin inside the throat near the tonsils, travel through the neck, and open to the outside near the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. (C) Pharyngeal cyst. A fluid-filled cyst (dotted circle) near the angle of the mandible (arrow). (D, E) Ectopic thyroid tissue. A sublingual thyroid mass (dotted circle) is seen in a 5-year-old euthyroid...

Procedure A The Arterial System

Make a longitudinal incision passing anteriorly from the diaphragm along one side of the sternum. Continue the incision through the neck muscles to the mandible. Try to avoid damaging the internal organs as you cut. Make a lateral cut on each side of the sternum into each arm (fig. 47.1).

Muscles that Move the Head and Vertebral Column

Vertebral Column And Muscles

Sternocleidomastoid Semispinalis capitis The sternocleidomastoid (ster no-kli do-mas'toid) is a long muscle in the side of the neck that extends upward from the thorax to the base of the skull behind the ear. When the sternocleidomastoid on one side contracts, the face turns to the opposite side. When both muscles contract, the head bends toward the chest. If other muscles fix the head in position, the sternocleidomastoids can raise the sternum, aiding forceful inhalation (fig. 9.26 and table 9.5).

Disorders of Supranuclear Eye Movements

Refixation Saccades

Treatment The underlying medical cause requires investigation and primary treatment. Once the condition is stable for a period of time, from 3 to 12 months, surgery has been performed with some success. In addition to treating the coexistent diplopia from skew deviation or horizontal strabismus, which may be surgically corrected, the anomalous head posture from defective vertical gaze may also be treated by inferior rectus recession or vertical transposition of horizontal recti during simultaneous horizontal strabismus correction.74 Faden operation (posterior fixation suture, or retroequatorial myopexy) on both medial recti to control convergence spasms and bilateral superior rectus resection to alleviate the anomalous head posture have also been reported.465 The prognosis of strabismus surgery in all eviating anomalous head posture and diplopia was good in all three patients in one study after a minimum of 6 months follow-up.74 In another report, head posture and ocular motility...

Muscles Of The Thoracic Wall

External Intercostal Muscle

The scalene muscles and the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck also contribute to respiration, especially during deep respiration (Figs. 4 and 5). The scalene muscles have their origin on the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae 4 to 6. The anterior and middle scalenes insert on the first rib and the posterior scalene on the second rib. As its name suggests, the ster-nocleidomastoid has its origin on the mastoid process of the skull and inserts on the medial aspect of the clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum. When contracting with the head and neck fixed, these muscles exert an upward pull on the thorax and assist in respiration.

Lymphovascular Drainage

Lymph Nodes Near Ribs

Hyoid bone Sternocleidomastoid Sternocleidomastoid Sternocleidomastoid Level II nodes represent the upper jugular group and consist of the nodes around the upper third of the internal jugular vein (IJV) and the adjacent spinal accessory (XIth) nerve. They extend from the level of the carotid bifurcation (approximating to the superior border of the thyroid cartilage) to the base of the skull. The posterior boundary of this group is the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior boundary is the lateral border of the sternohyoid muscle. The tail of the parotid gland is often included when nodes from this group are resected. This group of lymph nodes corresponds to the middle jugular group and consists of lymph nodes located around the middle third of the IJV. They extend from the carotid bifurcation to the intermediate tendon of omohyoid, where it crosses the IJV. The posterior boundary is the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior...

Optional Deep Muscles of the Neck

Human Musculature Under Scapula

All of these neck muscles of the cat are also found in the human. In addition, the human has another muscle, the omohyoid, which runs obliquely from the scapula to the hyoid. It has a tendon which also connects it to the clavicle. Digastric Mylohyoid Omohyoid Sternocleidomastoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Thyrohyoid

Veins from the Head Neck and Brain

The external jugular (jug'u-lar) veins drain blood from the face, scalp, and superficial regions of the neck. These vessels descend on either side of the neck, passing over the sternocleidomastoid muscles and beneath the platysma. They empty into the right and eft subclavian veins in the base of the neck (fig. 15.54).

Operative Procedure

Next, a 5-cm longitudinal incision is made along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, centered over its midpoint. Generally, this incision is a little lower than that for an endarterectomy. Alternatively, a transverse skin incision at C5-6, similar to the approach for an anterior cervical discectomy, can be made. For the inexperienced surgeon, the longitudinal incision permits a wider exposure, which facilitates electrode placement through this aperture. The redundant portion of the lead between the generator and electrode is secured to several areas of the cervical fascia with Silastic tie-downs. The objective is to form superficial and deep-restraint configurations that help prevent excessive traction from being transmitted to the electrodes during repetitive neck motion. First, a U-shaped strain relief bend is made inferior to the anchoring tether, and the distal lead is secured to the fascia of the carotid sheath. Next, a strain relief loop is established by...

Head and Neck Manifestations

Tuberculous Lymphadenitis (Scrofula). This represents the most common form of extrapulmonary TB (13), and in 80 to 90 of cases, it is the only site of infection. In HIVnegative patients, it is usually bilateral and posterior cervical in location, presenting as an erythematous, painless mass along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid, typically without systemic symptoms (11). The tuberculin skin test (TST) is positive in more than 75 of patients. In HIV-positive patients, multiple sites may be involved, often with mediastinal and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy, pulmonary or other organ involvement, and systemic symptoms. The TST is often negative in these patients. Of the patients, 10

Orotracheal intubation

Head position place the head in the sniffing position if there is no cervical spine injury. The sniffing position is characterized by flexion of the cervical spine and extension of the head at the atlanto-occipital joint (achieved by placing pads under the occiput to raise the head 8-10 cm). This position serves to align the oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal axes such that the passage from the lips to the glottic opening is most nearly a straight line. The height of the OR table should be adjusted to bring the patient's head to the level of the anesthesiologist's xiphoid cartilage.

Sources Of Preanalytical And Analytical Error

Urine, and other biological materials), such errors have been identified, and methods for their control have been developed. The errors include errors in design and sampling, such as poorly defined criteria, and biased selection of individuals for sampling. A number of errors can be grouped as physiological and kinetic, such as timing of specimen collection (in relation to the exposure), diurnal, meal- and exercise-induced variation, other variations in distribution (e.g., those induced by changes in body posture and by application of tourniquet). A further fundamental aspect important in the exposure biomonitoring of metals is contamination (and sometimes losses) during blood and urine specimen collection, storage, pretreatment, and analysis (Aitio, 1981 Aitio and Jarvisalo, 1984 WHO, 1996). The importance of contamination depends on the level of interest so, for example, contamination is a much more important problem for the determination of plasma lead, where only a small fraction...

Dermatomyositis Polymyositis

Inflammatory myositis in both DM and PM can prominently involve musculature in the head and neck area. About one-half of patients experience weakness of the neck flexors ocular and facial muscles are virtually never involved. Weakness of the striated oropharyngeal muscles can result in dysphonia and difficulty swallowing. Dysphagia can also result from esophageal dysmotility or cricoarytenoid sphincter muscle hypertrophy leading to obstruction (26).

OG Reconnect to chapter 3 Active Transport page

Many have limb weakness. About 15 of patients experience the illness only in the muscles surrounding their eyes. The disease reaches crisis level when respiratory muscles are affected, requiring a ventilator to support breathing. MG does not affect sensation or reflexes.

Neuromuscular Factors Contributing To Hip Stabilization

Maintaining an appropriate femoral head position within the joint capsule and labral complex is paramount to normal hip function and failure in this mechanism can lead to debilitating labral and cartilage compression in active individuals. Thus, hip congruency, although affected by, is not solely dependent upon the femoral head-acetabular bony and labral constituents for complete hip stabilization. The ligaments described above and the muscles that cross the hip joint contribute and provide for articular congruency (ie, proper joint rotation of the femoral head within the acetabular-labral complex) and maintain articular stabilization (ie, limit translations of the femoral head within the acetabular-labral complex). To accomplish this, muscles that cross the hip must act as force

Total Body Length

Supine Length Measurement Child

The top of the head of the patient should be placed against the headboard, eyes looking upward. The ideal head position is with the Frankfort horizontal position held in a vertical plane (i.e., the lower edge of the bony orbit and the upper margin of the external opening of the auditory canal of the ear are in the same vertical plane). The legs, or at least one leg, should be straightened, the ankle at a right angle to the leg with the toes pointing upward. The moveable footboard should be brought in direct contact with the sole of the foot and the measurement read.


With careful scrutiny of Mr. von Osten, Pfungst noted that after a question was posed to Hans, Mr. von Osten lowered his head slightly and bent forward, maintaining this position until the correct number was tapped, at which time he jerked his head upwards. The three other people for whom Hans performed well showed similar behaviors. Pfungst performed experiments in which Mr. von Osten (and the others) provided these behavioral cues at appropriate times (consistent with the correct answer) and at inappropriate times (consistent with a wrong answer). Hans' performance showed that he was responding to these cues. Pfungst suggested that Hans was sensitive to subtle cues from Mr. von Osten, beginning to tap when Mr. von Osten bent his head and continuing to tap until he detected a shift in Mr. von Osten's body posture. Hans' numerical ability was not based on an understanding of number, but rather on his reading of unintentionally provided subtle behavioral cues from his human questioner....


Doll Eyes Maneuver

The major task in evaluating a child with a motility abnormality is trying to determine whether it is caused by a common strabismus or a potentially more serious acquired disorder. The acute nature of the presentation, which is often helpful in adults, can be confusing in children as many benign entities such as accommodative esotropia can suddenly appear. In addition, many congenital motility disturbances such as Brown's syndrome and Duane's syndrome can go unnoticed for quite some time. Careful observation for compensatory head positions, variability, or signs of aberrant regeneration may give a clue as to the acquired nature of the disorder. Examination of old photographs can be extremely useful in dating the onset of the strabismus. Because strabismus is often secondary to other ophthalmic abnormalities, a thorough eye exam including cycloplegic refraction (to rule out accommodative factors) is necessary. Because most neuro-ophthalmic motility disorders result from a weakness of...

Fourth Nerve Palsy

Congenital Fourth Nerve Palsy

It is important to ask about previous extraocular muscle surgery or orbital trauma and to obtain any history that suggests myasthenia gravis or skew deviation. The examiner notes any anomalous head position (Figs. 5-8, 5-9), versions, ductions, cover test measurements in cardinal fields of gaze, any secondary deviation, forced (Bielschowsky) head tilt test measurements, presence or absence of both subjective and objective torsion, and presence or absence of dissociated vertical deviation. Forced ductions, Tensilon testing, and other supplemental tests are performed as appropriate. tion of the deviation or stability in measurements. For congenital cases presenting with head tilt in infancy, surgery may be performed as soon as possible to correct the head posture and thus to aid in normal development of the neck muscles and the alignment of cervical vertebrae. It is unknown, however, whether early strabismus surgery can prevent or reverse facial asymmetry. For the large head tilts in...

Therapy Evaluation

Sitting and standing posture are observed with attention to trunk flexion, forward head, or uneven lower extremity weight-bearing. Postural deficits alter the body's center of gravity during movement. Postural deficits also create muscle imbalances due to overly tight and overly stretched muscles that can contribute additional impairment to the rigidity and weakness, usually accompanying PD.


Postural instability is created by a pattern of weakness, muscular tightness, and standing alignment changes that diminish the patient's ability to control their center of gravity during transfers and gait. A common presentation is that of a stooped forward posture of the upper body with tight anterior chest wall musculature and a crouched lower body posture. A series of stretching exercises designed to diminish kyphosis of the thoracic spine and increase flexibility in the pectoralis major and minor muscles can lead to improved upper body posture and upper limb function. In the lower aspect of the body, strengthening of the lumbar paraspinal musculature and stretching of the hamstring and hip flexor muscles can be used to improve posture. It is important not only to stretch the key muscles in patients with poor posture, but to also strengthen the appropriate muscles to achieve good biomechanical alignment. To improve muscle length, therapists use several techniques, including heat...


The concept of voxel-based multispectral image segmentation requires anatomically correct alignment of the data sets acquired within different image acquisition procedures. As pointed out in Section 5 for MRI data sets of the human brain, this may already be achieved during the acquisition procedure itself by stabilizing the subject's head position and applying a constant field of view in the different MRI sequences. In general, this will be sufficient in order to obtain an acceptable co-registration of the different MRI data sets. Nevertheless, there may be situations in which motion artifacts cannot be avoided.

Third Nerve

Clinical Features There are two major categories of trigemino-oculomotor synkinesis. The first, and most common, consists of external pterygoid-levator synkinesis and is characterized by lid elevation when the jaw is projected forward, thrust to the opposite side, or opened widely. In the second form, internal pterygoid-levator synkinesis, lid elevation is triggered by clenching of the teeth. Rarely, a number of stimuli other than pterygoid contraction can cause eyelid elevation, and these include smiling, inspiration, sternocleidomastoid contraction, tongue protrusion, and voluntary nystagmus. Conversely, in an unusual case of trigemino-oculomotor sykinesis, pterygoid contraction was associated with contraction of the inferior rectus rather than the levator, thereby producing monocular bobbing eye movements rather than eyelid elevation.356


When the patient is sitting, a tremor of about the same frequency may involve the head. It is usually an affirmative nodding tremor and often has periodicity to it. There will be 10 or 12 beats with more or less regular synchrony, then a pause and no tremor for 5-10 s, and then the tremor resumes. The pause is often associated with a minor change in head position or perhaps the patient touched his chin or cheek with a finger. Often, however, the tremor appears to stop and start spontaneously. It will disappear when the patient is lying down and the head is fully supported.

Linguistic Action

The bodily posture and experience of listeners captures something about how linguistic actions are understood. When someone turns a deaf ear or when something goes in one ear and out the other, it's clear that the listener is not dedicating the right body part of successful communication.

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