Internipple Distance

Definition Distance between the centers of both nipples. Landmarks Measure between the centers of both nipples (Fig. 9.5). Instruments Tape-measure.

Position The patient stands upright, with the arms down at the sides; measure during mid-expiration. Infants should be measured lying supine during mid-expiration.

Remarks Internipple distance cannot be measured from pictures. With inspiration and expiration the value will change, so two measurements, both taken during mid-expiration, are desirable. Values for children to age 16 years are shown in Figs. 9.6 and 9.7.

Pitfalls In women with moderate to large breasts, the position of the nipples is variable, distorting this measurement.

Figure 9.5 Measuring internipple distance.

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Gestational age (weeks)

Figure 9.6 Internipple distance, both sexes, at birth. From Sivan et al. (1983), by permission.

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Gestational age (weeks)

Figure 9.6 Internipple distance, both sexes, at birth. From Sivan et al. (1983), by permission.

Figure 9.7 Internipple distance, both sexes, birth to 16 years. From Feingold and Bossert (1974), by permission.

Figure 9.7 Internipple distance, both sexes, birth to 16 years. From Feingold and Bossert (1974), by permission.

Areola Circumference
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