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21.7 ± 1.9

From Martin and Sailer (1962), by permission.

From Martin and Sailer (1962), by permission.

Common distribution of normal digital patterns

Ulnar loop ' Whorl

Common distribution in Down Syndrome Ulnar loops on all digits

Common distribution of normal digital patterns

Ulnar loop ' Whorl

Whorl.

Whorl

Ulnar loop

4th interdigital loop

Absence of thenar pattern

Proximal axial triradius

Common distribution in Down Syndrome Ulnar loops on all digits

Absence of thenar pattern

Whorl.

Whorl

3rd interdigital whorl or distal loop

Frequently partial syndactyly with associated interdigital triradii

3rd interdigital whorl or distal loop

Fibular loop

Fibular loop

Open (arch)

4th interdigit distal loop

3rd interdigital loop

Absence of distal crease of 5 th digit

Simian crease Distal axial triradius Maximal atd angle (mean = 81°) Hypothernar patterning

4th interdigit distal loop

Open (arch)

Frequently partial syndactyly with associated interdigital triradii

Figure 12.7 Comparison of normal and Down syndrome patterns on hand and foot. From Smith (1982), by permission.

overall pattern of a malformation syndrome and may indicate the timing of a developmental anomaly. Any analysis of dermal ridges should include comparison with parental and/or family patterns.

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