Info

Figure 8.9 Upper arm length, males, 4 to 16 years. From Malina et al. 1973), by permission.

Figure 8.10 Upper arm length, females, 4 to 16 years. From Malina et al. 1973), by permission.

Forearm Length

Definition Length of the forearm or middle (mesomelic) segment of the arm.

Landmarks Measure the distance from the most prominent point of the olecranon to the distal lateral process of the radius along the lateral surface of the forearm (Fig. 8.11).

Instruments Tape-measure or calipers.

Position The patient stands or sits with the upper arm hanging at the side and the elbow bent at a 90 degree angle; the arm should be held in a neutral position (not in supination or pronation), with the hand in a vertical plane.

Alternative Measurement by X-ray is more accurate, but the arm must be positioned properly with the forearm in neutral position.

Remarks Forearm lengths are presented in Figs. 8.12-8.14. Although this may seem to be an awkward measurement, standards are available from anthropological studies. These distances obviously do not represent single bone lengths, but they do allow assessment of the different segments and proportions of the arm.

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Gestational age (weeks)

Figure 8.12 Forearm length, both sexes, at birth. From Merlob et al. (1984a), by permission.

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Gestational age (weeks)

Figure 8.12 Forearm length, both sexes, at birth. From Merlob et al. (1984a), by permission.

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